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{$text['mgr_red1']} Cottingham 2 10a

Claypole: from Great Easton to Kettering

by Alan D Craxford, Charlotte Kiely and Judi Wood
With contributions from Janice Binley and Gina Morley

Introduction

Other articles within the website which relate to particular aspects of this story are noted within square brackets in the text. Links to these articles can be found in the table towards the bottom of column 2

The surname Claypole is common in Northamptonshire and many branches claim descendancy from the union of Sir John Claypole and Elizabeth Cromwell (daughter of Oliver Cromwell) or from one of Sir John's brothers in 1646. This article follows the lineage of the Claypole family found in the middle of the seventeenth century when Robert lived in the village of Medbourne in Leicestershire and several decades earlier than that to the hamlet of Wing in Rutland. It is of note that one of his grandsons, John Claypole and his wife Mary Carr, can claim a significant number of consanguineous marriages (marriages between cousins) amongst their descendant generations (1). This article is a companion to the study of the branch which settled in Finedon, Northamptonshire [Article A.].

Great Easton is a village which sits in the extreme south east of Leicestershire and is very close to the border with Northamptonshire. It lies between the rivers Eye and Welland. In earlier times it was known by the name Easton Magna. Its population in 1841 was about 600. Its parish church is dedicated to St Andrew, was constructed in the Early English style, and has a peal of five bells. Great Easton stands a couple of miles north west of Rockingham and the closest town of any size is Corby, both in Northamptonshire.

William and Thomas Claypole, sons of John Claypole and Mary Carr, moved the four miles east from Medbourne to Great Easton and both were married there in 1770. John, the son of William Claypole and his wife Mary Sharpe, was born in the village in 1773 and became the progenitor of this story. As a young man, he learned the skills of a cordwainer and spent his life in the village in this pursuit. Traditionally, these artisans were shoemakers who made new shoes from new leather as opposed to cobblers who repaired shoes. Their trade was governed by a guild "The Worshipful Company of Cordwainers" (2) an organisation dating back to 1272 which determined who could practice what activity, where and the level of skills required to do it. The name originated from the use of goatskin leather from Cordoba, Spain, in the making of shoes.

John married Sarah Ashby in the village on May 16th 1796, ultimately having four sons and five daughters. Daughters Mary (born 1804) and Sarah (1810) were to marry brothers John and William Baker from Empingham, Rutland. Daughters Ann (1807) and Elizabeth (1814) also married brothers John and Samuel Mayes from Sudborough. One of Ann and John's daughters, Caroline, married John, her first cousin - the son of William and Mary Claypole. Daughter Mary Henrietta married Anthony Beesworth in Cottingham on December 5th 1858 (a full account is given in "Following the Beadsworth family in Cottingham - Part 2b: Anthony" [Article B.]), whilst son John Thomas married Mary Ann Elizabeth Scott Beesworth in Cottingham in November 1871. Mary Ann was the illegitimate daughter of Alice Beesworth before Alice married Thomas Jarvis (see "Following the Beadsworth family to Cottingham - Part 1 Arrival" [Article C.]). Son John Claypole (1816) married Ann Bellamy Munton in Cottingham on June 27th 1839. The murder of their grandson, Thomas Christopher Claypole by Henry Crane in 1875 started the research behind this website (See [Article D.]). Son Thomas (1819) married Elizabeth Packwood whose daughter Mary Elizabeth Claypole was originally married to Arthur Nutt in Finedon ([Article A.]). The remainder of this article will follow the life of second son William.

The families of William Claypole

St Andrews

St Andrews Church, Great Easton (4)

William Claypole was born on New Year's Day and baptised in St Andrews Church, Great Easton on January 13th 1802. As a teenager he started to learn the trade as a cordwainer. He married Elizabeth Shaw in the village on July 4th 1822. She was born in 1801 in the village of Allexton which stands on the main road east from Leicester some four miles to the west of Uppingham. Over the course of the next twenty years she was to bear him ten children: six sons and four daughters. He spent most of his working life as a shoe maker but at the census of 1851 he gave his trade as a butcher. Elizabeth became unwell in December 1854 having contracted typhus fever and died on Christmas Eve. She was buried on December 26th 1854.

After the death of his wife, he took his youngest son, 17 year old George, to lodge with his sister Sarah, her husband sawyer John Baker and their two sons. In 1861, their next door neighbours were the household of Hannah Claypole, the widow of William's brother Henry who had died in 1853. In residence too was their oldest son Thomas whose wife Frances had also died in 1853 and granddaughter Rose Ann. Next door to them was the family of Henry and Hannah's fifth born son Frederick and his wife Sarah Craythorn. Beyond them were their second born son John and his wife Jane.

St Peters

St Peter's Church, Belton (5)

Later that same year, William married again - this time to Elizabeth Baker, 20 years his junior and who was the half sister of John Baker, his daughter Sarah's husband. There were no further children. William lived on in Great Easton until the beginning of 1875. He was buried at the parish church on January 28th 1875. After his death, Elizabeth moved to the village of Horninghold, about 4 miles north west of Great Easton. There she became housekeeper to John Hackney, an 81 year old shepherd who was also a widower. In 1886, Elizabeth married 65 year old agricultural labourer William Cox who had been born in Belton, Rutland. They made their home in Littleworth Lane in the village. Elizabeth died there and was buried in St Peter's Church on May 7th 1897. William Cox followed her three months later on August 25th 1897.

Mary Ann (1823 - 1858)

St Mary's Finedon

Church of St Mary the Virgin, Finedon (6)

William and Elizabeth Claypole's first born child arrived in the early months of 1823. She was baptised Mary Ann at St Andrews Church in Great Easton on May 30th the same year. Her early years were spent helping her mother with the ever increasing size of the family. In her early twenties she moved into service working as a housemaid for 70 year old and unmarried "gentlewoman" Esther Paul in Woodfield Cottage on the Thrapston Road, Finedon. Also in residence as a housemaid was 68 year old widow Mary Tansley who was originally from Great Easton. The identity of her late husband has not yet been discovered. Whilst in that employment, Mary Ann met William Thomas Thompson, a 19 year old trainee bricklayer from Market Harborough in Leicestershire. The couple were married at the Church of St Mary the Virgin in Finedon on May 18th 1852. The couple made their home in Little Bowden which was a hamlet about a mile east of Market Harborough. Married bliss was not to be long lasting although the couple did have one son, a boy called Robert who was born on August 29th 1857. Even during her confinement, Mary Ann had become increasingly unwell with weight loss and breathing difficulties. She died on August 2nd 1858 and was buried at St Mary's Church in the village two days later. The cause of death was given as phthisis (pulmonary tuberculosis) and lung abscesses.

William did not remain single and within six months he remarried in Little Bowden on January 31st 1859 to Emily Jarvis, a girl from Kibworth, Leicestershire. By the 1870s the couple had moved to Ashstead near Epson in Surrey. William died there in June 1899. Emily lived on for another eight years. At the census of 1901 she had living with her, 43 year old Robert Thompson, her son, said to have been born in Market Harborough.

John (1825 - 1905); Frances (1829 - 1854)

John and Frances Claypole were the second and fourth babies born to Elizabeth four years apart. John was baptised at St Andrews Church in the village of Great Easton on February 6th 1825; his sister on January 19th 1829. In his early teens John had gone off to work in the fields in Little Bowden near Market Harborough while Frances remained at home. However he was to return to the tutilage of his father and learn the trade as a cordwainer. Brother and sister were to marry a sister and brother from the same family within a year of each other. John married Hannah Morgan at the Register Office in Northampton on November 26th 1846. Frances married Samuel Morgan, Hannah's brother, in Northampton the following summer. Samuel (in 1816) and Hannah (ten years later) were born in Olney, a market town in Buckinghamshire 13 miles south east of Northampton, the offspring of shoemaker Robert Morgan and his wife Mary Marshall. Robert had moved the family to the St Katherine's area of the town in the early 1840s. It is not known for certain where the two couples met but it may have been associated with their mutual interest in the shoe trade.

John and Hannah

Sun Inn

The Sun Inn, Great Easton (7)

After the service, John and Hannah returned to Great Easton where he took up the trade as a cordwainer presumably working in the family business. Initially they had John's younger brother, William, living with them as an apprentice. The couple remained in the village for the next thirty years but were not destined to have any children of their own. Toward the end of the 1860s, John took over the licence of the Bell Inn whilst still working as a shoe maker. Ten years later the couple had moved to the Sun Inn public house where John added the trade as a butcher to his portfolio.

Cross Keys

The Old Cross Keys (now a private house)
from Google maps (inset: The Cross Keys sign)

In the late 1880s, John and Sarah moved the 12 miles north east to the village of Collyweston where they managed a butcher's shop. Their final move was in the early part of the 1890s when they took over a hostelty, the Cross Keys Inn, in Sutterton, a village 6 miles south of Boston, Lincolnshire. This building had been built about 1776 on the main road to Boston and was owned by the Soames Brewery of Spalding (8).

John sustained injuries an aggrevated assault when he refused to serve drink to a customer who was already drunk. He was knocked to the ground and kicked. Henry Jones, a schoolmaster, was sent to prison for one month's hard labour from the North Holland (Boston) Petty Sessions in May 1904 (9).

John and Hannah died within six weeks of each other at the beginning of 1905. She caught influenza which progressed to pneumonia and she died on February 16th 1905. Brother in law George Claypole registered her death. John, it would seem, had suffered from a heart condition for some time. He died on March 25th 1905, attributed to the effects of mitral valve stenosis. His sister in law Charlotte, George's wife, reported his death. He was aged 80 years; she was 75 years.

Frances and Samuel

All Saints

All Saints Church, Northampton (10)

After their marriage, Samuel and Frances settled in the St Katherine's District of Northampton where he continued to ply his trade as a shoe maker. Around the turn of the decade Frances presented her husband with three children in quick succession. Their first son was born in the spring of 1850 and named Marshall. He was followed by a sister, Mary Ann, born in the latter months of 1851. The final child, John, was born in the winter of 1853. Tragedy struck the family in the autumn of 1854. An epidemic of scarlet fever ripped through the town and all three children contracted the disease. Marsall, it seems, became ill in the first week of October followed by Mary Ann the following week. John fell ill on October 24th. All three young children were admitted to St Katherine's Hospital. Mary Ann was the first to die - on October 25th - followed by Marshall on October 28th and then John on October 31st. All three were buried at All Saints Church, Northampton. Whilst still grieving the loss of her offspring, Frances was struck down with another complaint. She developed a high temperature, abdominal symptoms and a rash. She was admitted to hospital where she died on November 13th 1854, the formal diagnosis being Typhus fever. She was buried at All Saints Church on November 15th 1854.

About a year later, Samuel was to remarry, to 24 year old Sarah Blunt. They settled in Narrow Toe Lane, a path in the centre of the town running between St Peters Street and The Green. That remained their abode for 34 years until Samuel's death in 1889 at the age of 73 years. The couple had no children.

James (1826 - 1885)

Third child and second son to be born was James in the autumn of 1826. He married Elizabeth Butler in 1849, a union which produced seven children. The story of his family will be told in a separate article [Article E.].

Alfred (1831 - )

Son Alfred was born in the spring of 1831 and baptised on June 12th 1831. As a young man he became a labourer on the railway and at the time of the census of 1851 he was lodging with his brother James' family in the Gate House at Thorpe by Water. Midway through that decade he decided to seek pastures new and in May of 1856 he boarded the steamer RMS Robert Small in London bound for Australia. He arrived in Botany Bay, New South Wales on May 23rd 1856. It seems that he took lodgings in Sydney the following year but nothing more was heard of him until his sister Sarah Elizabeth placed the following message in an Australian newspaper nearly 50 years later: "MISSING FRIENDS: Claypole (Alfred) of Great Easton, Leicestershire, left Cornwall with a family named Reed in 1856. His address in 1857 was Sussex Street, Sydney. Sister Lizzie asks" (11). There was no apparent answer.

William Ashby (1833 - 1865)

William was the fourth son of John Claypole and Elizabeth Shaw, born in 1833. In his teenage years he learned the trade as a cordwainer apprenticed to his older brother John. In the early 1850s he moved to Finedon to take up work as a shoe maker. There he met Elizabeth, the daughter of farm worker John Shipley and his wife Letitia. They were married in the village in the Summer of 1855 and made their home in South West Street. In the next four years Elizabeth bore him three sons (William Alfred, 1856; John Thomas, 1858 and George Frederick, 1860). In the early 1860s William moved the family to Arthur Street in the Kingsthorpe district of Northampton. He contracted smallpox, which had been rife in the town that year (12), where he died on April 17 1865 after suffering from the disease for five days. He was just 32 years old. His death was notified by Elizabeth's younger brother, Eli Shipley.

Thomas (1835 - 1911)

William and Elizabeth's fifth son was born in Great Easton and baptised Thomas on February 7th 1836. He was to become a shoemaker and moved to Finedon in Northamptonshire. He married twice. His experience with his first wife, Hannah Tompkins, mirrored that of his sister Frances. Married in 1855 and with two daughters within two years, all three were dead by 1857. He married again in 1859 to Matilda Abbott who gave him three sons and six daughters. Their story can be found in the separate Finedon article [Article A.]

Sarah Elizabeth (1837 - 1919)

The couple's third daughter was baptised Sarah Elizabeth on December 3rd 1837. With her husband Robert Chamberlain she had ten children. Their further history will be told later in this article.

Henrietta (1840 - 1893)

Harp

Harpenden British School (13)

Penultimate daughter was baptised in Great Easton on April 5th 1840. In 1851 she was sent as a nursemaid the three and a half miles east to Thorpe by Water in neighbouring Rutland to live with her married brother James and his wife Elizabeth to help look after their new born baby. It is not known how long she remained there but could well have returned to Great Easton by the time her mother died in 1854. Towards the end of the decade, Henrietta had travelled south and had gone into domestic service at the Harpenden British School near St Albans in Hertfordshire (13). This was an institution founded in 1850 by Sir John Lawes to provide education for ordinary working class children. It had sections for boys, girls and infants.

On July 7th 1862, Henrietta married agricultural labourer Fuller Sturman in Barton Seagrave. He was born in Burton Latimer and baptised there on December 27th 1840. They initially settled in the hamlet of Warkton which lies just east of Kettering where he continued to work on a farm. By 1881 the family moved to Tickencote, a village in Rutland north west of Stamford where he acted as a farm bailiff. Another move followed during the next decade, this time to Slack's Cottage Farm in the village of Bramley on the outskirts of Rotherham in South Yorkshire. During their marriage, Henrietta presented Fuller with nine children: six sons and three daughters. Second son George Samuel, born in 1864, married Mary Lewis Chamberlain, a girl from Isham, south of Kettering in 1888. There is currently no indication that her family was related to the family of Robert Chamberlain who married Henrietta's sister Sarah Elizabeth, or John Neville Chamberlain, shop keeper and entrepeneur who lived in Cottingham [Article F.].

Henrietta died in Doncaster on June 12th 1893, the cause of her death given as bronchial asthma and heart disease, and was buried in Hyde Park Cemetery in the town three days later. Sometime after Henrietta's death Fuller moved in with his son Ernest, his wife Elizabeth and five sons in The Brick Yard in Barlborough, Chesterfield, Derbyshire. Ernest worked as a filler in a coal mine. Fuller died in the spring of 1922. He was 82 years old.

Robert William

Lincolnshire

Lincolnshire cap badge (15)

St John's

St John's Church, Chapeltown (14)

Robert was born in Burton Latimer (although his birth is not recorded in the indexes) and baptised there on May 24th 1863. In his late teens he moved to Tickencote, Rutland to become an indoor servant on a farm. On February 25th 1886 he enlisted for Army service and was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, the Lincolnshire Regiment. His papers show that he was of modest stature at 5 feet 5¼ inches tall and weighing 10 stones. He served in the East Indies and India, where he was promoted to corporal, until 1892. By 1991 the family had moved to South Yorkshire. Robert met and married Ada Louisa Morton on July 8th 1895 in Chapeltown near Ecclesfield just outside Sheffield.

RWS

Robert in uniform

When the hosiltities of the 2nd Boer War broke out in South Africa, Robert rejoined the Regiment and became part of the South African Field Force. They were shipped out and arrived at the Cape on January 25th 1900. In July 1900, they were stationed at Zilikat's Nek in the Megaliesberg Mountains about 37 miles north west of Johannesburg. On July 11th the position as attacked by the enemy in great numbers. Almost the entire squadron including Robert were taken prisoner (16), and held for several months. The following year, Robert signed a further attestation at Riesfontein on February 21st 1902. After this he was promoted to the rank of sergeant. He returned to the United Kingdom on April 3rd 1904 and was finally discharged medically unfit for further service on March 18th 1905.

Upon his return home it appears things were never right between him and Ada Louisa. In 1905 she took herself off as a servant at the Bolton Infirmary, Lancashire. During that time she struck up an acquaintance with a boot maker, Patrick Moran. She presented herself as a widow and on November 8th 1905 they underwent a form of marriage at Bolton Register Office. She was duly brought before the Bolton Borough Court charged with bigamy. Her cousin, Sarah, said that Ada Louisa knew that Robert was still alive as she had seen him just the previous week. She was referred to the Manchester Crown Court where she was handed a three day prison sentence (17).

Lusitania

RMS Lusitania (18)

It is not known whether Robert obtained a divorce from Ada Louisa, whether the marriage was formally annulled or whether they merely went their separate ways. It appears that Ada, as Ada Louisa Moran, emigrated to North America aboard the Cunard liner RMS Lusitania from Liverpool bound for New York on August 7th 1909. This passenger liner was launched in June 1906 and was notoriously sunk by a German U-boat on May 7th 1915 during the first World War.

Robert did however find solace with another woman, Annie Holt who had been born in Sheffield in 1881. They were never married. She had already given birth to a son in 1906, who was named Robert William Holt, before she had a daughter, named Evelyn Sturman, on October 23rd 1908. Beyond that details are sketchy but it does appear another two sons and three daughters were born between 1912 and 1918. The family, including Evelyn, lived during the 1920s in Granville Street in the tiny village of Thurcroft which is situated to the south east of Rotherham. In his teens son Robert was affectionately known in the family as "Our Billy". As an 18 year old he was employed as Robert W.H. Sturman at Dinnington Colliery as a pony driver. He was killed in a mining accident, crushed between two coal wagons that slipped, on April 10th 1924. He is commemorated on a plaque at St Leonard's Church Dinnington. Robert senior died, aged 68, on October 10th and buried on October 15th 1931 at St John's Church, Throapham, two and a half miles south east of Thurcroft.

George (1843 - 1910)

Marriage with Julia Brooks

Final son George was baptised in Great Easton on December 3rd 1843. As a teenager he learned his trade as a shoe maker. On October 13th 1863 he married Julia Brooks at St Andrews Church, Lyddington in Rutland. She was about four years older than George having been born in Caldecott in 1839, the daughter of Thomas Brooks. Their married life was cut short towards the end of the decade. Around the middle of 1868 she became pregnant and duly gave birth to a son in the summer the following year. Julia was never well after the birth and her general condition rapidly deteriorated. She died on August 1st 1869; her death certificate reporting "Angina Pectoris: Being in a state of great disability from chronic diarrhoea and a recent confinement". She was buried in Caldicott three days later. George was in the church again on August 8th when his son was formally baptised Walter William Brooks Claypole. Sadly the little boy did not live to see his teenage years. Walter William Brooks died on July 17th 1879 of scarlet fever. His death was notified by Maria Martin, this being a year before her daughter Charlotte married his father.

Marriage to Charlotte Maria Martin

Charlotte was born in the hamlet of Morcott, about 4 miles east of Uppingham on July 12th 1849. She was the third of the eleven children (five boys and six girls) of farm labourer Thomas Martin and his wife Maria Brittain. Thomas was born in Morcott in 1814; Maria in neighbouring Glaston in 1823. They both died in Caldecott before the end of the century: Thomas in 1893, Maria in 1897. As well as the connection with the Claypoles recounted in this section, several of their offspring had marital connections with other families of interest. Second daughter Caroline (born January 19th 1847) married local boy James Alexander Evans in 1869. The eldest of their nine children, Maria Lavinia Evans (born 1869) married John Thomas W Claypole, her first cousin. Second son John Martin (born 1857) married Julia, the daughter of William Liquorish and Lucy Craxford in 1889. When John died in October 1891 Julia moved in with John's younger brother (and Thomas and Maria's fifth son) Britton William Martin. Although they were never married, they lived together until Julia died in May 1924. Their full story can be found in [Article G.]. Then their fourth son, Benjamin William Martin (born 1864) married Martha Louisa Tilley in Cottingham in April 1884 before moving to Loddington, Northampton after the turn of the century. Martha produced sixteen children for Benjamin before she died in 1916. See [Article H.]

St M Caldecott

St Mary the Virgin, Morcott (19)

Charlotte was baptised at the church of St Mary the Virgin in Morcott on August 12th the same year. By 1861, her father Thomas had moved his family, now comprising eight children, ten miles south to Caldecott, which is just inside the border with Rutland, to take up work as a labourer on the railway. The Martin and Claypole families must have become well acquainted in the village during the following years and they would have been aware of both the death of George Claypole's wife Julia in 1869 and his son William in 1879. There would have been a deepening relationship between George and Charlotte during that time. Within a year, the couple had moved to Northampton where both took up employment in the shoe trade: George lodging in The Ridings, Charlotte in Cow Lane. They were married at St Giles Church in the town on November 14th 1870.

After their marriage, they moved back to Caldecott where they took over a shoe shop. The family remained in the village for the next forty years. George always entered his trade in census returns as shoe maker although on the death certificate of his son William in 1879 he is recorded as an inn keeper. At the time of the 1891 census their next door neighbours were Charlotte's brother John and his wife Julia. Over time they had two sons (John Thomas, 1880 and Britton George, 1886 - who died with convulsions aged 18 months on January 17th 1888) and six daughters (Hannah Maria, 1871; Elizabeth Martha, 1873; Henrietta, 1878; Georgina, 1884; Charlotte Eleanor, 18898 and Lily Mabel, 1892). George died in Caldecott on October 3rd 1910. Charlotte remained in the village after her husband's death. Initially she had George Britton, the son of her oldest daughter Hannah living with her. In the mid 1920s, Charlotte moved to Ashby Magna in Leicestershire, lodging initially in Main Street with John and May Constance Chandler. By 1928 she had moved in with her two youngest daughters, Charlotte Eleanor and Lily Mabel, in Main Street, Ashby Parva. Both girls remained unmarried. Charlotte Eleanor had trained as a nurse, spending some time in the service of St John's Hospital, Lewisham in London. Lily Mabel had spent some time in domestic service in Caldecott. Before the outbreak of the second World War Lily had become an examiner of hosiery but her entry in the 1939 Register of England and Wales notes that she was incapacitated. Charlotte died in the town in 1943.

Hannah Maria

St J Caldecott

St John the Evangelist, Caldecott (20)

George and Charlotte's first daughter was born on September 20th and baptised on Christmas Day 1871 (although the parish baptismal records list her first name as Anna). As a young woman she went into domestic service as a cook. On September 21st 1897 she married shoe hand Alfred Ernest Claypole at the Church of St John the Evangelist in Caldcott. Alfred was born on February 3rd 1876 in Milton Ernest Bedfordshire, the son of Thomas Claypole and Matilda Abbott. Thomas was Hannah Maria's uncle (George's older brother by seven years). Matilda was the aunt of Frank Ernest Abbott who married Mary Ann Chamberlain. This made Hannah Maria and Alfred Ernest first cousins.

After the wedding they made their home in Finedon where they established a greengrocery shop in Mulso Road. They had five children. Son Thomas John (born 1899) emigrated from Liverpool to Quebec, Canada aboard RMS Doric in August 1923. Next son Alfred Ernest (1900) married Florence Webb in Finedon in 1923. They took over the running of the greengrocery business when his father retired. (Another curiosity as yet unsubstantiated: Ethel Caroline, one of the daughters of Benjamin William Martin and Martha Louisa Tilley, married a Thomas Webb (her second husband) in Kettering in 1925. Her first husband had been killed in action near Bethune, France in October 1916. Ethel Caroline and Alfred Ernest were first cousins, so were Thomas and Florence Webb related? [- Ed]). Third son, William Abbott (1902) emigrated to Canada from Liverpool to Quebec aboard the RMS Athenia in April 1924. Sadly, Matilda Georgina Charlotte (1903) died in Finedon in 1913 just before her tenth birthday from convulsions due to tubercular meningitis. Last daughter Priscilla (1908) married carpenter and joiner Edward Graves in 1929 and remained in Finedon.

John Thomas W

George and Charlotte Maria's first son, John Thomas, married Maria Lavinia Evans in Caldecott on June 2nd 1904. Maria was about 10 years older that John and was the daughter, born in Morcott in 1869, of John Alexander Evans and Caroline Martin. Caroline was the older sister, by two years, of John's mother, Charlotte making John and Maria first cousins. By 1939, the couple had moved to Drayton in Leicestershire where John worked as a shepherd.

Continued in column 2...

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Added - March 14th 2021

Sarah Elizabeth Claypole and Robert Chamberlain

St Bot

St Botolph's Church, Barton Seagrave (21)

The couple's third daughter was baptised Sarah Elizabeth on December 3rd 1837. In her teens she went into service as a domestic servant in Barton Seagrave, the Northamptonshire village on the outskirts of Kettering. Whilst there she met Robert who was born in Whitechapel, London on June 14th 1835 the son of Abraham and Eliza Chamberlain. He had been baptised at St George's Church, Tower Hamlets on February 14th 1836. He had moved to Northamptonshire and become a general labourer. The couple were married at St Botolph's Church in Barton Seagrave on February 2nd 1859. Robert's brother William and Sarah Elizabeth's younger sister Henrietta, acted as witnesses. They made their home in the village for the next twenty years where Robert became a shepherd. He appears to have sustained a minor injury to his leg in May of 1887 after which he collapsed and died on May 20th 1877. The death certificate reported that he had sustained a sprained ankle eight days previously following which he developed phlebitis (presumably a deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and syncope. He was buried on the 23rd of the same month. Before then, Sarah Elizabeth had given birth to five sons and five daughters.

By 1890 Sarah Elizabeth had taken over the running of the village Post Office (22). Her two youngest daughters, Henrietta and Betsy Maria, were still at home with her. Also with her were her two grandchildren John Frederick (4 years) and Robert (3 years). These two grandchildren were still with her at the turn of the century. In 1901 she was joined by her now married daughter Henrietta. Sarah Elizabeth died in Barton Seagrave in 1919.

Robert William (1859 - 1940)

First son Robert was born on September 12th 1859. Initially he became a confectioner. He married Rebecca Wykes at Spratton, a village just west of Brixworth, Northamptonshire on January 22nd 1884. They had three children, including the aforementioned John Frederick (born 1886) and Robert (1887) and a daughter Ada (1885). Sadly Rebecca developed an infection during her last labour and delivery and succumbed to puerperal fever on October 29th 1887 a few days after son Robert's birth. At the time of the census of 1891, daughter Ada had been sent to lodge with her aunt Mary Ann Abbott. Robert William married again in Callander, Scotland to Jessie Lister in 1891 before settling in Kettering where he became an auxilliary postman. He had a further three children with Jessie. Robert was declared an invalid in the census of 1911 although no reason was given. He died in Kettering at the age of 81 years in 1940.

Mary Ann (1861 - )

Post Office

London Road Post Office (1985)

Daughter Mary Ann, who was born in 1861, married Frank Ernest Abbott at St Botolph's Church on April 4th 1883. Frank, a journeyman baker, was born in Finedon in 1861. He was the son of William Abbott and Emma Parker. William's sister Matilda Abbott was the second wife of Thomas Claypole (they married in Finedon on April 25th 1859). Thomas was Mary Ann's great uncle. After the marriage, the couple moved to Kettering initially living in South Parade, a terrace on the London Road. In 1891 they had their niece, Robert William's daughter Ada, living with them. Frank established his bakery premises on the corner of London Road and Broadway in Kettering. He died on March 8th 1911 with cancer of the larynx and was buried in Kettering two days later. After Frank's death Mary Ann remained in close contact with her children for the remainder of her life. At the census of 1911 she had taken over her husband's bakery business and was living as post mistress of the London Road Post Office at the same address (23). In residence at the same time was her sister Caroline Frances Chamberlain, her sons Robert (aged 22 years) and Francis (16 years) as well as her nieces Olive (12 years) and Evelyn (10 years): the daughters of her sister Clara. Mary Ann and Caroline were subjected to an attempted fraudulent cashing of a postal order by 25 year old William Starmer on December 6th 1912. At trial the following January he was sentenced to six months hard labour (24).

James Gray (1852 - 1942)

St James

St James, Thrapston (25)

Septimus

Septimus Kingsford

James, their second son, was born in the summer of 1862 and given Gray as a second name in honour of his maternal grandmother at baptism on November 23rd 1862. He married Edith Harris at St James Parish Church, Thrapston on June 26th 1887, the service being performed by Rector Septimus Kingsford who was previously a chaplain at the British Embassy in St Petersburg and who was a tutor to the Russian Royal Family (26). They moved to Hawthorn Road, Kettering after the marriage where James worked as a warehouseman in a leather store. The house was about 250 yards away from the Post Office where his sister Mary Ann lived and worked. They had four sons (Wilfred, born 1890; Kenneth, 1892; Harry, 1896 and Charles, 1899) and a daughter, Hilda (born 1894).

By the turn of the century James moved the family back to Barton Seagrave where he worked as an iron ore miner. In 1901 they had Eliza's bother Charles, a blacksmith, and her sister Elizabeth living with them. Towards the end of the decade James, Edith and their youngest son Charles emigrated to the United States of America. They settled in Cortland, Illinois where James sought employment as a jobbing labourer. Charles was to become a signal maintainer from the Chicago and North Western Railway Company. James died on June 20th 1942 and was buried in Cortland. The local newspaper carried an obituary on its front page (27). Edith lived on in the town, finally dying in July 1967.

John Henry (1864 - )

L Badge

Royal Leicestershire Regimental cap badge (28)

Next born son John was baptised on January 10th 1864. After working as a general servant, in 1883 he enlisted as Private 564 with the 2nd Leicestershire Regiment. He saw service in India. However his time was blighted by a variety of illnesses and complaints for which he received repeated treatment and he was discharged again in 1890.

Workhouse

Kettering Workhouse; now St Mary's Hospital (29)

He married Emma Clements Lee on July 7th the same year. Brothers Alfred and Walter and sisters Caroline and Betsy stood as witnesses. They made their home in Barton Seagrave where John worked as a cowman on a farm. They were to have six children: three sons (Richard Henry, 1893; George, 1899 and Arthur Robert, 1909) and three daughters (Ethel, 1892; Edith, 1896 and Margaret Vera, 1902). In the latter half of the first decade of the new century, John moved the family to Kettering where they took a house in Roundhill road, the next street along from Hawthorn Road on London Road. He obtained the position of labour master at the Kettering Workhouse on London Road which became St Mary's Hospital at the inception of the National Health Service, a position he was to hold for nearly 30 years. He retired in 1930. John died suddenly on December 26th 1932. He had attended a concert for the inmates at the Kettering Workhouse. Later that evening his body was discovered in the grounds by the current master (30). He was 69 years old.

Clara Elizabeth (1867 - 1927)

Robert and Sarah Elizabeth's second daughter was baptised Clara in Barton Seagrave on April 21st 1867. She spent her teenage years as a domestoc servant before becoming a cloth machinist towards the end of the 1880s. She married Thomas William Kilsby, a 29 year old labourer from, Kettering, at St Botolph's Church on December 26th 1892. As with her brother before her, four of her siblings (brothers Walter and Alfred and sisters Betsy and Henrietta) signed the register. They made their home in Kettering, first in Channing Street and then Prospect Place. This was a row of terraced houses on London Road directly opposite the Workhouse. The site is now occupied by the Harry Potter House Sheltered Housing. Thomas became a chimney sweep. They had seven children: four boys (Horace William, 1893; William Sydney, 1895; Frank, 1896 and Alfred Ernest, 1907) and three girls (Olive, 1899; Evelyn Mary, 1901 and Doris Rachel, 1905). Sadly, Frank and Albert Ernest both died within the first year of their life. Frank suffered a collapsed lung on December 6th 1897 during an episode of bronchopneumonia. Alfred died of bronchopneumonia on November 14th 1908 after contracting measles. Clara Elizabeth died in Kettering in 1927. Thomas lived on in the town until 1954. Curiously he was recorded as "Incapacitated" in his entry in the 1939 Register for England and Wales.

N Badge

Northamptonshire Regimental cap badge (33)

Son Horace enlisted with the 1st Battalion, the Northamptonshire Regiment and after training was embrked for France. He was promoted to Lance Corporal 9545 and was involved in the disastrous Battle of Aubers Ridge. He was missing and presumed killed in action on the night of May 9th 1915. His body was never recovered. The Regiment suffered 984 casualties in the action (32). He is commemorated on Panel 28 to 30 of the Le Touret Memorial which is situated in the Le Touret Military Cemetery on the Bethune to Armentieres main road in the Pas de Calais district of France.

Walter Abraham (1868 - )

Burton Latimer

St Mary the Virgin, Burton Latimer (34)

Walter was born in Barton Seagrave on October 22nd 1868. He entered the shoe trade as a clicker. He married Louisa Corby Kearsley in Burton Latimer on November 1st 1890. In the middle of that decade they moved to Finedon where he took the position of foreman clicker with one of the companies in the town. There is nothing in the records to suggest that Walter was following in the footsteps of his great uncles but it is inconceivable that he did not know of the Claypole family's involvement in the shoe industry in Finedon. They found a house in Orchard Terrace. They had three children (Olive, 1892; Sidney, 1896 and Doris Annie 1902). At Christmas 1901 Walter decided to venture into work by himself. He must have been aware of the success that his first cousin once removed, George Frederick Claypole had made of his enterprises in the latter part of the nineteenth century even though that had ended in bankruptcy. Walter presumably thought that he could do better.With a Mr Threadgold they started a business with a capital of £ 25 each; Walter having borrowed his. A year later he bought Threadgold out paying him £ 10 with promise of a similar amount later. By mid 1904 the business had unsecured liabilities of £ 170 6s. but assets of only £ 4 7s. 3d. (four pounds seven shillings and three pence). He appeared before the Northampton Bankruptcy Court in October 1904 when the examination was closed (35). Curiously Walter disappears from the records after that date. Louisa returned to Burton Latimer with her children but Walter is absent from the census return of 1911. Daughter Olive's entry on the same census return had been crossed out (it is possible she was a hospital in patient). Sadly her death aged 20 years was noted in the first quarter of 1912. She had been in failing health for some time with weight loss, abdominal swelling, fever and night sweats and died on March 26th 1912 from tubercular peritonitis.

Caroline Frances (1873 - 1939)

Third daughter Caroline was baptised in the village on March 23rd 1873. As a young woman she led a rather peripatetic existence. She went into service with the household of rope manufacturer James Garnock Jones, first as a housemaid in the Woolton District of Liverpool in 1891 and then as cook after the family had moved south to Ealing in London at the turn of the century. By 1911 she had returned to Kettering and was living with her now widowed sister Mary Ann Abbott at the London Road Post Office. She was still with her sister during the early 1920s. Towards the end of the decade she returned to Lancashire to accept a housekeeper's position. In the 1930s she moved again to Bowness-on-Windermere in Cumbria. She suffered from a cerebral thrombosis (stroke) for which she was admitted to the Langrigge Nursing Home in the town where she died on February 16th 1939. She never married.

Alfred Edward (1871 - )

Robert and Sarah Elizabeth's final son was born in 1871. In his late teens he had become a clicker in the shoe industry. He married Agnes Anne Stevens, a girl born in Kettering in 1870, at St Botolph's Church on March 30th 1891. His sister Clara and brother Walter were among the witnesses. The couple had three children (Winifred Kate, 1892; Ralph, 1893 and Edith Mary, 1896). Sadly the second little girl died within weeks of birth. By the turn of the century the family were living in Shaftesbury Street, Kettering where Agnes died in May 11th 1903. She had been suffering for some time from weight loss and exhaustion from carcinoma of the breast which had produced secondary spread.

Letitia

SS Letitia (36)

Alfred moved to Burton Latimer where on September 2nd 1907 he married Mary Selina Ball. They were settled on the High Street in the village in 1911. A daughter, Cynthia Mary Elizabeth was born on November 11th 1911 and baptised on February 4th 1912. Mary Selina died in September 1924 and was buried in Burton Latimer on the 25th of that month. Early the following year Alfred decided to emigrate. Taking Ralph and Cynthia with him, they boarded the SS Letitia in Liverpool on April 25th 1925 bound for Toronto, Canada. His daughter Winifred Kate also emigrated to Canada separately. On the ship's manifest Alfred declared his trade as chimney sweep. Alfred married a third time to widow Maud Cobby in the township of York, Ontario on November 8th 1932. She had been born Maud Bunting in Dorking, Surrey in 1879. Cynthia became a student in the early 1930s but caught an infection whilst there. She died on May 15th 1933, the cause registered as pneumococcal meningitis. She was buried at the Prospect Cemetery in Toronto two days later.

Henrietta Edith (1875 - 1957)

Penultimate daughter Henrietta was born in Barton Seagrave on June 18th 1874. At the age of 22 years she married John James Dunkley, a plumber and glazier born in 1869 in Lubenham near Market Harborough at St Botolph's Church on April 6th 1896. By the turn of the century she had become a machinist in a clothing factory. They were to have eight children (five sons: Laurence John, 1897; Cecil Edward, 1899; Geoffrey, 1901; Kenneth, 1904 and Gordon, 1916 and three daughters: Phyllis Marguerite Alys, 1907; Kathleen Elsie Elizabeth, 1910 and Violet, 1915). Midway through the first decade of the new century the family moved to the High Street in High Ferrers. Then about a decade later a further move took them to Finedon, John James died there in 1926.

Henrietta married for a second time in Finedon in 1931. Her husband was 66 year old Finedon widower Albert Langley whose own wife had died in the town in October 1929. Albert and Henrietta's marriage had lasted barely four years when he died on July 18th 1935. Henrietta was living in Albert Road in Finedon at the outbreak of the second World War and had Phyllis, Violet and Gordon still with her. She finally died in the town in 1957.

Laurence John

Eldest son Laurence was born on October 11th 1897 in Finedon and baptised in Barton Seagrave on December 26th 1897. In his early teens he worked on a farm but sometime after 1911 he became an iron stone miner. During the first World War he enlisted for Army service in Kettering in February 1917. He was initially assigned as Private 20213 to the 4th Battalion, the Royal Sussex Regiment but quickly transferred as Gunner 99950, to the Machine Gun Corps. He was shipped out to France but suffered from bilateral trench foot. He spent 34 days in hospital in Portsmouth and a further 37 days in rehabilitation in Ryde on the Isle of Wight. He was returned to active service in France but sustained injuries from a gas shell attack. He was demobilised in 1919 and returned to his iron stone occupation. He married Alice Jeanette Underwood in Finedon in 1932. They looked forward with happiness when Alice became pregnant in the spring of 1932 but tragedy struck the couple at the end of the year. She went into labour on New Year's Eve and delivered a daughter on January 1st 1933. Alice suffered an uncontrollable post partum haemorrhage and died of shock the same day. She was 34 years of age. Their daughter was subsequently named Jeanette. Laurence married again in 1935 to Doris Houghton. They made their home in Mulso Road, Finedon. Doris died there in 1966. Laurence lived on until April 16th 1986.

Betsy Maria (1875 - 1942)

Sarah Elizabeth and Robert Chamberlain's final daughter presents something of a mystery. She was born in the village in the autumn of 1875. By her late teens she had taken up work as a machinist. She married Walter Robert Minkley, a clicker in the shoe trade born in Wigston Magna Leicestershire in October 1872, in St Botolph's Church on December 26th 1895. Her siblings were out in force to witness the proceedings and again sister Caroline and brothers Alfred and Walter signed the register along with Walter's sister Ellen Maria Minkley. After the service the couple moved to Gordon Street in Kettering. Two sons (Leonard Walter, 1898 and Harold George, 1900) were born before the end of the century.

The mystery surrounds the census return of 1911 which Walter himself completed. The 1911 census for England and Wales was different from its predecessors in that the form was the first that the householder filled in himself rather than by the enumerator following an interview. Walter declared himself to be married for 15 years and having three children, all still alive. In the house were his two sons. Also present was 27 year old single "housekeeper", Annie Mary French with her 4 year old daughter Florence Mary Minkley French. Betsy Maria is not listed. There is no apparent trace of her in that name in any of the records after the census form of 1901. Walter is known to have emigrated to Canada and then settled in Washington State in the 1920s.

There is one possible explanation for Betsy's disappearance. On August 4th 1942, a Bessie Myra Wiggins was buried at the Prospect Cemetery in Toronto, Canada. She had died two days previously of a stroke following a cerebral embolism and myocarditis. She had been living in Greenlaw Avenue, York, Toronto with husband and shoe maker Harry Wiggins. She was 65 years old, date of birth September 17th 1877. She was born in England, her maiden name was Chamberlain and she had been in Canada for 39 years. This would indicate a date of departure from England as 1903. No marriage record has been found as yet for Bessie and Harry Wiggins but they have stated that it was December 26th 1896 on several census returns. However, when Betsy Chamberlain's brother Alfred Edward sailed for Quebec on May 3rd 1925, he reported that he would be staying with his sister Mrs Bessie Wiggin at 80 Greenlaw Avenue, Toronto (37). Bessie and Harry did have at least five children, including a son, Thomas Joseph born in 1905 and a daughter Christina born in 1909 who, on her marriage declaration listed her mother as Bessie Chamberlain. Thomas Joseph married Alfred's daughter Winifred Kate (they were first cousins) on September 25th 1926. Harry lived on in Greenlaw Avenue until he suffered a coronary thrombosis on February 4th 1946. He too was buried at the Prospect Cemetery three days later. If this scenario is correct, then it represents a case of marital desertion and potentially double bigamy.

Leonard Walter

By 1911 Leonard Walter had followed his father into the shoe trade. During the first World War he enlisted for Army service and was assigned to 1st Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment as Private 40869. After seeing action in France along the Western Front during the German retreat from the Hindenburg Line, the Regiment was transferred to the area of Belgium called the Ypres Salient. There they became involved in the Battle for Passchendaele (the Third Ypres War). Leonard was declared missing, presumed killed in action during October 4th 1917. Along with so many of the other fallen and missing he is commemorated, on Panels 90 - 92, of the Tyne Cot Memorial, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their thanks for the help, comments and suggestions from the following in the construction of this article: Contributors to the Northamptonshire Forum (including Rosie17) at RootsChat.Com; Members of the Kettering Past and Present Group on Facebook (including Alan Drake, Yvonne Hawthorn, Julie Hill and Thomas Thomas.

Further Reading

The Changing Face of Legal Regulation
Marriage Law

The book covers

1. "The Changing Legal Regulation of Cohabitation: From Fornication to Family, 1600-2010" by Rebecca Probert (2012) Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-53630-2. The book aims to show how the legal treatment of cohabiting couples has changed over the past four centuries, from punishment as fornicators in the seventeenth century to eventual acceptance as family in the late twentieth; to chart how the language used to refer to cohabitation has changed over time and how different terms influenced policy debates and public perceptions and to estimate the extent of cohabitation in earlier centuries.
2. "Marriage Law for Genealogists: the definitive guide. Revised Second Edition" by Rebecca Probert (2016) Takeway Publishing, Kenilworth, Warwickshire. ISBN 978-0-9931896-2-3. This is an indispensable guide for everyone tracing the marriages of their English and Welsh ancestors between 1600 and the twentieth century. It explains why, how, when and where people in past centuries married. Family historians just starting out will find advice on where 'missing' marriages are most likely to be found, while those who are already well advanced in tracing their family tree will be able to interpret their discoveries to better understand their ancestors' motivations.

Rebecca Probert is Professor of Law in the Law School at the University of Exeter. She has interests in both legal history and how the law affects families. She has carried out extensive research into all aspects of cohabitation and marriage. She has written many volumes, both textbooks (book 1 above which appears in the Law in Context series) and aids to the family historian (book 2). The authors would like to thank Professor Probert for her helpful advice and comments in various aspects of our research.

Links to the articles mentioned in the text are in italic capitals below:

Article A: Shoe making and intrigue in Northamptonshire Claypole - Nutt: A saga of Finedon
Article B: Concerning the Beadsworths and Craxfords in Cottingham Following the Beadsworth family in Cottingham - Part 2b: Anthony
Article C: Papa Anthony and Mama Priscilla Following the Beadsworth family in Cottingham - Part 1 Arrival
Article D: The short life of Thomas Christopher Claypole Death for threeha'p'orth of suckers
Article E: The story of James Claypole, his family and the Amber Valley: To follow
Article F: Another family of Chamberlains nearby Elizabeth Tilley and the grocery connection
Article G: A link to the Liquorish and Craxford families The Gretton Craxfords: Exodus II - All sorts of Liquorish
Article H: A link to the Tilley family A History of the Tilley family: Cottingham Part 2a, the family of James and Martha Tilley

References

1. A table listing All Cousin (consanguineous) Marriages in this website
2. History and Heritage of fellmongers, skinners and glovers The Company of Fellmongers
3. Family tree graphic: Freeware Graphics: Vintage Kin Design Studio, Australia
4. Photograph: Great Easton, Leicestershire: St Andrews Church: © Kate Jewell, and licenced for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence
5. Photograph: St Peter's Church, Belton © Hector Davie, on Geograph and licenced for reuse under this Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Licence by Creative Commons
6. Photograph: Finedon, Northamptonshire: The Church of St Mary the Virgin: © Christopher French, and licenced for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence at Wikimedia Commons
7. Photograph and description: The Sun Inn, Great Easton, WhatPub
8. The Cross Keys Inn, Sutterton near Boston, Lincolnshire: History of The Old Cross Keys The Porter Family website
9. Sent to prison for assault, North Holland Petty Sessions in District News, Lincolnshire Chronicle Page 7 Friday May 27th 1904. The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
10. Photograph of All Saints Church, Northampton © Thorvaldsson; Permission for use granted under the terms of the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Licence by Creative Commons from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
11. "Missing Friends"; Evening Journal, Adelaide Page 7 Saturday February 16th 1901. Trove at the National Library of Australia
12. Report of a smallpox outbreak in January 1865: Chapter 6: Dr Edwin Wing St Andrews Hospital, Northampton: The First 150 Years: Page 118 Google Books
13. Harpenden British School from Harpenden Hisotry: Discover the town's heritage.
14. Photograph: St John's Church, Chapeltown Sheffield © Dave Bevis, on Geograph and licenced for reuse under this Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Licence by Creative Commons
15. Photograph of Lincolnshire Regiment Cap Badge © Dormskirk; Permission for use granted under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licence Version 1.2 from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
16. Imperial Units Lincolnshire Regiment in Anglo-Boer War.com
17. Bolton Woman's Bigamy: The Manchester Evening News. Page 4. August 14th 1906 The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
18. Cunard Liner RMS Lusitania in 1909 Wikimedia Commons. Reproduced image in the public domain.
19. Photograph: Church of St Mary the Virgin, Morcott © Michael Garlick, on Geograph and licenced for reuse under this Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Licence by Creative Commons
20. Photograph: Church of St John the Evangelist, Caldecott © Ian S, on Geograph and licenced for reuse under this Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Licence by Creative Commons
21. Photograph: St Botolph's Church, Barton Seagrave © Geoff Pick, on Geograph and licenced for reuse under this Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Licence by Creative Commons
22. POST OFFICE: Mrs Sarah Elizabeth Chamberlain, post mistress: Barton Seagrave: Page 328. Kelly's Directory for Northamptonshire 1890. Special Collections, University of Leicester
23. Abbott, Mary Ann: Baker & Sub-post Office, 1 Broad Way, Commercial, Kettering: Page 126. Kelly's Directory for Northamptonshire 1914. Special Collections, University of Leicester
24. A Cripple's Fraud:Trials of Prisoners, Northamptonshire Quarter Sessions: Northampton Mercury Page 6 January 3rd 1913. The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
25. Photograph: St James Church, Thrapston © Will Lovell, on Geograph and licenced for reuse under this Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Licence by Creative Commons
26. Septimus Kingsford, Rector of St James, Thrapston 1883 - 1913: Thrapston Parish Church Rectors: 1221 onwards: Thrapston Heritage.
27. Cortland Man Passes Away: Obituary: The Daily Chronicle De Kalb Illinois Page 1 Monday June 22nd 1942. Newspapers.com
28. Photograph: Cap badge of the Royal Leicestershire Regiment Dormskirk; Permission for use granted under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2 from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
29. Photograph Kettering workhouse, now St Mary's Hospital. Wikimedia Commons. Reproduced image in the public domain.
30. Tragedy follows concert - the death of John Henry Chamberlain: Peterborough Standard Page 3 Friday December 30th 1932 The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
31. Photograph of Le Touret Memorial © Vvet; Permission for use granted under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licence from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
32. Aubers Ridge and The Northants: The Battle of Aubers Ridge Local History: Cold Higham Parish Council
33. Photograph: Cap badge of the Northamptonshire Regiment Dormskirk; Permission for use granted under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2 from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
34.Photograph: Church of St Mary the Virgin, Burton Latimer © Geoff Pick, on Geograph and licenced for reuse under this Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic Licence by Creative Commons
35. Re: Walter Abraham Chamberlain of Finedon: Proceedings of the Northampton Bankruptcy Court. Northampton Mercury Page 6 October 14th 1904. The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
36. Photograph: SS Letitia: Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. Permission for use granted under the terms of the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
37. Alfred E Chamberlain. Passengers arriving on SS Letitia at Quebec May 3rd 1925: Canadian Immigration Service

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