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{$text['mgr_red1']} Cottingham 2 10a

A history of the Beadsworth family - Part 1: Origins

by Alan D Craxford, Janice Binley and Jamie Ramshaw
With contributions from Chris Blenkarn

Introduction

Other articles within the website which relate to particular aspects of this story are noted within square brackets in the text. Links to these articles can be found in the table towards the bottom of column 2

This is the first of a trilogy of articles charting the progress of the Beadsworth family and two of its branches which settled in Leicester and Cottingham in Northamptonshire. There are a number of factors which makes this study particularly taxing as researchers soon discover. Firstly there is a wide diversity in the spelling of the surname. As well as the version given above, with which we will stay throughout the main part of the articles for simplicity, it also appears as Beesworth, Beedsworth, Beardsworth and (occasionally) Busworth. These variations frequently appear across generations of the same branch of the family and at times even in the same individual. One possible explanation for this is that the clerk recording documents writes what he thinks he hears and the subject, unable to read, cannot correct the mistake. Secondly the geography under discussion is spread across a relatively small area over the boundary between south east Leicestershire, Rutland and north Northamptonshire. The repository for official records does not always confirm to county boundaries. As an example, Cottingham is in Northamptonshire, its Registration District is Kettering but its post code is Leicestershire. Gretton, less than five miles away, is also in Northamptonshire but its Registration District is Uppingham in Rutland while its postcode is Northampton. Thirdly, for the family historian, the availability of population and personal records, particularly prior to 1837, can be patchy and where present difficult to interpret.

For the most part, the area mentioned above is bounded to the north by Uppingham in Rutland and Corby in Northamptonshire to the south. Most of the places are small communities of perhaps a few hundred souls. The area around Gretton developed trade in skins (See "Of fellmongers, skinners and glovers" [Article A.]).

Church, Uppingham

St Peter & St Paul, Uppingham (2)

Uppingham is a market town on the western edge of Rutland close to the border with Leicestershire and stands on the main route running east-west between Leicester and Peterborough. In the 18th century the road south through Lyddington to Rockingham was the London to Leeds turnpike. It stands about 6 miles south of the county town of Oakham. Perhaps it is most well known for its public school which was founded in 1584. The town was granted its charter to hold markets in 1281 and these were held every Wednesday. Annual cattle fairs were held at the beginning of March and July. The Anglican church in the town is dedicated to St Peter and St Paul. It is of gothic design, started in the fourteenth century. The tower, which is topped by an imposing spire, contains a peal of five bells. The population of Uppingham swelled during the early decades of the nineteenth century from 1393 inhabitants in 1801 to 2025 in 1841, the date of the first official census.

The Welland Valley is a wide 'U' shape in contour with a steep southern escarpment called Rockingham Hill which was a natural fortress overlooking the valley. The River Welland cuts through the soft marshy clay of its floor on its way to the sea. The fertile soil supported dense forests, teeming with game and, together with the iron-bearing sandstone beds, provided early man with all the basic requirements for their existence: food, fresh water, and raw materials for building and toolmaking. Many villages and hamlets appeared during this time. The Romans established a mining community to exploit the mineral deposits. Later, during the Dark Ages the Saxon tribes used the old hill fort to defend themselves against the marauding Viking and Danish invaders. (3).

Castle
Bede House, Lyddington, Rutland

Left: Rockingham Castle, Right: Bede House, Lyddington - remaining wing of the Palace of the Bishops of Lincoln (4)

After the Norman Conquest the Welland Valley became of national strategic importance. William the Conqueror confiscated the lands and estates of the Saxon noblemen and built a series of castles around the country to impose his rule. Rockingham Castle became a firm favourite as a meeting centre and place of retreat for the court outside of London. He declared Rockingham Forest (which, as well as woodland, provided areas of grass and parkland vital for grazing deer) to be a Royal Hunting Forest. The area had also attracted the attention of the church. William granted the confiscated manor of Lyddington, which lay some five miles north across the valley just over the border in Rutland, to the Bishop of Lincoln and over the following two centuries it was developed into their palace (5). This proximity served as an intermittent but ongoing source of tension between the church and state and as early as 1095, the Council of Rockingham was convened by William II where all the bishops and barons debated the compatability of the Church's allegiance to both pope and king. This interface remained unchanged until the reign of Henry VIII when his activities led to the dissolution of the monasteries and acquisition of church property. He was not unfamiliar with this section of England as parts of the nearby town of Melton Mowbray were given to Anne of Cleves (his fourth wife) as part of the settlement on the annulment of their marriage (6). In the 1540s the Palace was surrended to the crown and at the same time the now derelict Castle was leased and subsequently sold to Edward Watson who had been secretary to the bishop at Lyddington.

Ancestors

Our Beadsworth family appears to have originated in Uppingham in Rutland. The earliest confirmed individual is Anthony Beadsworth baptised in the town on December 11th 1672, the son of Edward and Ursilla, and died there in 1743. Nothing else is known of his life except that his wife's name was Mary and they had eight children. Their sixth child, William, was born about 1720. His wife, too, was named Mary and they were to have four sons and a daughter. He was buried in Uppingham on July 20th 1772.

Anthony Beadsworth, William and Mary's second son, was baptised in Uppingham on January 24th 1747. On December 11th 1769 he married 18 year old Elizabeth, the daughter of Benjamin and Eliza Sculthorpe. This is another surname of interest with over one hundred individuals, mostly residing in Cottingham, in our own database. The name is spread widely over Northamptonshire, with and without the trailing 'e'. To date a definite link from Uppingham to Northamptonshire has not been found. In the 1770s the couple had three boys and three girls. Anthony was buried in Uppingham on May 4th 1815.

William, William and Mary's oldest son and Anthony's older brother by about four years, married in Uppingham about 1770. Subsequent generations of their descendants did persevere with their surname spelled as Beardsworth. His son, William, married Fanny Dams at the turn of the century, a girl from Rushton near Wilbarston. He established a business as a glazier, plumber and painter which for many years occupied premises in the Beast Market in the centre of town. In due course his son, William and his grandson, also named William, took over the business. The youngest of these three Williams married Emma Beardsworth in 1857. Emma's parents were John and Mary Beardsworth from Evenley, a village on the southern edge of Northamptonshire, 8 miles west of Buckingham. To date no link has been found between the two Beardsworth families, although logic would suggest they were more than likely distant cousins.

Some of the Beadsworths mentioned above held the title of Copyholder of The Manor of Preston with Uppingham which was passed down from one generation to the next. The title was usually associated with the place where the individual carried out his trade or occupation (for a discussion of the background see: "Land owners, copyholders and simple tenants" in [Article B.]). The earliest reference was to a John Beadsworth in April 1744 who "formally occupied a brewhouse" through to March 1933 where succession of the property associated with the plumbing business from John Alfred Beardsworth to his son William Beardsworth the younger had taken place. Another surname of note in the list is Sumpter with dates between 1793 and 1875 (1)

The family of William Beadsworth and Alice Sumpter

St Leonard

St Leonard's Church, Rockingham

The remainder of this article will follow the family of Anthony and Elizabeth's first born son, William. He was baptised in Uppingham on April 6th 1770, his name entered in the hand written Parish Register as Beardsworth. Nothing is known of him growing up or his line of work. On October 20th 1797 he married Alice Sumpter at St Nicholas Church, in the village of Bringhurst. Alice was the daughter and fifth of six children of William Sumpter and Hannah Baker who lived in the village of Rockingham just over the border in Northamptonshire. Hannah Baker had been born in Gretton about 1730. William, the son of Joseph Sumpter and Elizabeth Spence was born about 1725. He was one of eight known children although according to burial records at least half died in infancy. William's younger brother Edward had a daughter Eunice who would subsequently marry William Aldwinckle, a member of one of the prominent families in Cottingham.

Although her birth appears to have been registered in Bringhurst in 1776, she was baptised at St Leonard's Church, Rockingham on February 11th 1776. The Sumpter's near neighbours in the village were the family of Thomas Liquorish and Ann Sharman and indeed their own daughter Eleanor was baptised on June 27th the following year (and recorded on the same page of the Parish Register) (See "A brief Liquorish Archive" [Article C.]).

William and Alice were to have at least seven children during the first fifteen years of their marriage. Again records present some confusion as to the family's actual place of abode quoting both Bringhurst and Drayton. Both are in south eastern Leicestershire which lie just over six miles south of Uppingham and five miles east of Market Harborough. Bringhurst was historically the more important village and was a settlement before the Norman Conquest. Older versions of the name include "Bruninghurt", being derived from the Old English "Bryne" and "Hyrst", meaning a wooded hill. After the ceremony in October 1797, William moved from Uppingham and settled with Alice in Bringhurst area.

Church, Bringhurst

St Nicholas Church, Bringhurst (8)

Church, Drayton

St James Church, Drayton (9)

The parish of Bringhurst, more properly known as the Parish of Six Saints circa Holt (4) - it originally also covered the villages of Blaston, Drayton, Great Easton, Medbourne and Stockerston - is centred on the 13th century Church of St Nicholas. Less than a mile to the west of Bringhurst along a county lane lies the hamlet of Drayton. It too has a tiny chapel dedicated to St James which functioned separately serviced by a curate until the late eighteenth century. In 1794 it fell into disuse, villages walking across the field to attend St Nicholas Church, and was converted into a bakehouse, a function it provided for nearly 100 years. Then in 1878 the owner of Rockingham Castle, George Lewis Watson, bought the building, recommissioned it and it was reconsecrated as a mission church. The church's ancient burial ground at Bringhurst, which is no longer used, is administered jointly between Bringhurst, Drayton and Neville Holt Parish Councils.

Alice died in Drayton just before Christmas and was buried there on December 21st 1823. After his wife's death, William appears to have moved back to his family's ancestral home town. He survived Alice by barely eighteen months and was buried in Uppingham on May 10th 1825.

Anthony (1798 - 1858)

The first of William and Alice's four sons was born and baptised in Bringhurst on April 1st 1798. He spent his early years growing up in the family home with his younger siblings. In the early nineteenth century he moved one and a half miles south across the border into Northamptonshire to the village of Cottingham. He married local girl Elizabeth Hipwell and with her established his own local Beadsworth dynasty. His future progress is recounted in the next article [Article D.]).

Joseph (1800 - 1878)

Second son Joseph was born in 1800 in Drayton and baptised there on May 11th 1800. He was destined to spend his days working on the land as an agricultural labourer. He married Jane Tirrell, a girl three years his junior, in the village on October 19th 1826, the service witnessed by his younger sister Sarah. Jane had been born in 1803 in Wilbarston, a village just inside Northamptonshire four miles south west of Bringhurst, but when the banns were published she had already moved within the parish of Drayton possibly to take up a post in domestic service.

They were to spend their whole lives in the village community. The couple were the subject of a house breaking on the afternoon of Sunday February 16th 1840 at which time eight sovereigns, three half sovereigns and two shillings were stolen from them. A man, Benjamin Sheriff, and three teenagers, William Sharpe, William Terry and Thomas Pollard were charged with the offence at the Petty Seesions at Market Harborough and then appeared at the Crown Court in Leicester at which Jane was called to give evidence. Terry was sentenced to twelve months imprisonment; the other three were transported for life. (10, 11).

Joseph and Jane had no children. After his wife's death Joseph continued to live on his own in Drayton. He was found dead on the floor of his house by a neighbour taking him some milk on Wednesday morning, November 13th 1878. The presumption was that he had died whilst having his supper the night before (12). He was buried in Bringhurst in November of that year. To date the final resting place of his wife has not been discovered.

Hannah (1803 - )

Apart from her baptism in Bringhurst on May 1st 1803, nothing is known of first daughter Hannah.

William (1805 - )

Only two dates have been confirmed for fourth born William: his baptism in Bringhurst on February 17th 1805 and his marriage to Mary Bull in Drayton on October 30th 1826.

Elizabeth (1807 - 1891)

Next born Elizabeth was baptised in Bringhurst on November 1st 1807. She married agricultural labourer George Hornsby in neighbouring Medbourne, Leicestershire on October 20th 1827. They moved to George's home village of Sutton Bassett, Northamptonshire which lay between Medbourne and Market Harborough, where they had at least three daughters. George died there in 1887; Elizabeth followed in 1891.

Sarah (1810 - 1889)

Their third daughter was baptised Sarah in Bringhurst on May 20th 1810. Her story follows in the next section.

Isaac (1812 - 1879)

William and Alice's final child was born in the winter of 1812 and was baptised Isaac on December 13th 1812. As a young man he foresook the countryside and moved the 20 miles westward to seek his fortune amongst the smoke and bustle of the town of Leicester. He became a blackmith. He met and married a country girl, Sophia Wise, who was originally from the village of Nassington on the outskirts of Peterborough. The story of their future together and their burgeoning family is told in the third episode of the trilogy [Article E.]).

Continued in column 2...

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Added - August 1st 2020
Revised and updated: September 26th 2020

The family of Sarah Beadsworth and William Atkins

Parish Church of St Mary Magdalene

St Mary Magdalene Church, Cottingham

Sarah was just 21 years old when she married William Atkins in Drayton on December 29th 1831. William was originally from Shoreham, a village in the Sevenoaks District of Kent. He was a woodman by trade. Almost immediately they followed Sarah's brother to Cottingham. After about a year Sarah became pregnant. She delivered a daughter, Jane, who was baptised at St Mary Magdalene Church in the village on October 22nd 1833. Four more daughters (Alice, 1840; Hannah, 1842; Sarah Ann, 1846 and Elizabeth, 1850) and two sons (William, 1837 and Joshua, 1845) followed. Joshua (child no. 5) was sickly from birth and only lived for 11 days. He was buried in the churchyard on May 18th 1845.

Bury House

Berry House (from an old postcard)

By the census of 1851, William was working for the estate of the Medleycott family and the old Cottingham manor house and had lodgings in the grounds of Berry House. Nothing is known of Alice (child no 3) after her entry in the 1851 census. Teenage Sarah Ann (child no 6) did earn some money as a lace runner (embroidering decorative threads onto small items) but disappeared after 1861. It must be assumed they perished, perhaps in one of the many epidemics of infectious diseases which spread through the village during the mid Victorian period.

The Spread Eagle Inn

The Spread Eagle, Cottingham (13)

At the end of the decade William had moved the family to a house in the High Street close by the Spread Eagle public house and next door neighbour to John Neville Chamberlain, grocer and landowner. William died and was buried on August 14th 1864. Sarah lived on alone. By the end of the next decade she had taken over a small cottage in Dag (now School Lane) and was registered as a pauper receiving parish relief. Interestingly her next door neighbours were also named Atkins, headed by Charles (their story is told in: "Another tragic Atkins tale" [Article F.]), although no relationship between the two sides has been found to date.

By 1881 Sarah had moved again just around the corner into Rockingham Road. Her near neighbours now were Mary Atkins, Charles' widow, and her three youngest children, and Edward Binley with his wife Ann who was one of the daughters of her brother Anthony Beadsworth. Sarah died in the autumn of 1889.

Jane (1833 - 1907)

Old map: Middleton 1902.
Old map: Cottingham 1886.

Maps of Middleton (1902) and Cottingham (1886) showing variations of street names and places of interest

Their first daughter Jane was baptised on October 22nd 1833. In 1851 she had entered domestic service in the household of baker William Aldwinckle in Middleton. He also farmed in the village and employed four men. Jane was working in the company of Alice, the oldest of the daughters of Anthony Beadsworth. She became the companion of Thomas Goode, an agricultural worker, from the village who was five years her senior. They were married in Cottingham on December 24th 1858. They made their home on The Hill, Middleton. They were to have two sons and two daughters. Jane died in Middleton in 1907; Thomas survived her by six years, dying in 1913.

Son Harry was born in the village in 1861. Like his uncle William, Harry became a groom but he spent some time as a general labourer in Leicester when he lodged with his now married aunt Elizabeth. He married Jane Pickwell who came from Carrington, a village in Lincolnshire 7 miles from Boston, in the winter of 1886. They had two sons and three daughters. Jane died in the village in 1902; Harry lived on for another 28 years. First born daughter Elizabeth (1889) married Owen George Lines, a brick setter from Birmingham, in Cottingham in 1909 and settled on Pinfold Bank on Blind Lane For an account of life on Blind Lane, see [Article G]. By the outbreak of the second World War, they had moved around the corner into Rockingham Road. Owen's brother Henry was to marry Mabel Hannah Tansley (from another large family family in our database whose heritage in the village stretched back to at least 1660). Next daughter, Edith, born on June 5th 1890, married Ernest Smith, a blast furnace worker, in 1914. They moved into a house on the corner of Blind Lane and Corby Road. Youngest daughter Kate died in 1915 at the age of 21 years.

Harry and Jane's younger son, George Thomas, was born in 1898. At the outbreak of the first World War he enlisted for active service. In 1916 he was initially enlisted with the Bedfordshire Regiment but was subsequently transferred as 56909, Private with the 15th Battalion, the Lancashire Fusilliers. This became part of the 32nd Division of the Army in France which was heavily engaged on the Somme in the Battles of Albert, Bazetin and Ancre. George was with the Third Army when it was involved in the Battle of Ancre on April 5th 1918 and he was one of the total of 177,739 British and Commonwealth forces killed, wounded or lost in the action. He died of his wounds on May 16th 1918. He was buried in Section VIII Row O Plot 5 at the Cabaret-Rouge British Cemetery in Souchez, a village just north of Arras in the Pas de Calais, France. He is also commemorated on the Cottingham War Memorial. [Further Reading: 1.]

Daughter Esther, born in 1863, married Arthur Minns in Cottingham on April 22nd 1890. Their daughter Florence was notable for marrying Frederick Crane in 1913. Frederick was one of the grandsons of Henry Crane who was responsible for the murder of a six year old boy in 1875. Son William Thomas Goode was born in 1865 and initially became a shepherd. He married Anna Maria Foster on June 29th 1893. They settled into a cottage on The Hill in Middleton and William became a farm foreman. They had one son and three daughters. They remained in the same house with son Herbert William, who never married, until the second World War. Of their three daughters, Annie Elizabeth (who was born in 1896) maried Kenneth Neville Crane, another of Henry Crane's grandsons, in 1929.

William (1837 - )

Hall

East Carlton Hall (15)

William and Sarah's son was baptised William on July 16th 1837. As a young man whilst still living at Berry House he trained to become a groom looking after the stables. It is more than likely his duties would have taken him to other similar establishments in the area. One of these was Carlton Hall, the country seat of Sir John Henry Palmer, 7th Baronet of Carlton, which stood in East Carlton a couple of miles west of Cottingham. Employed there in 1861 as a dairymaid was 22 year old Mary Ann Wright, originally from the nearby village of Geddington. Sometime in the early 1860s the couple made the transition to Leicester where they found temporary accommodation in Baker Street. They were married at St Margaret's Church on October 11th 1864.

Cottages

Brickfield Cottages.
(For a larger view see [Article H]

After the service they returned to Cottingham where William returned to work as a groom and the couple settled into a cottage in Brickfield Manor on Rockingham Road. That was where their three children (William, 1867; Emily, 1869 and George R, 1873) were born. Within the decade, William moved the family again the short trip north east to a cottage on the main street in Rockingham. In April 1881, their next door but one neighbours were 67 year old agricultural labourer John Sumpter and his 66 year old wife Mary. John was the nephew of Alice Sumpter and thus was William's first cousin once removed. His wife Mary was born the illegitimate daughter of Elizabeth Dams. The Dams family (sometimes spelled Damms) mainly lived in the Welland Valley between Wilbarston and Gretton. Although not confirmed with certainty, Elizabeth was probably the daughter of John Dams and Sarah Platt and the sister of Fanny Dams who married William Beadsworth in 1795.

Mary died in the early months of 1888. William left Rockingham and for a time found lodgings in Harley Mews of Cavendish Square, London with coachman William Holt. By the turn of the century he had moved north again to Leicester, taking on a job as a light porter. In 1901 he was boarding with Joseph Jackson {a first cousin three times removed to one of the authors [- JB]) and his wife Harriet at 29, Skipworth Street. This was the same street that his married sister Elizabeth Gale had lived ten years before and who now lived in a house which backed on to this one. Ten years later he had moved a few houses further along Skipworth Street to number 37, lodging with the family of painter Joseph Eld. At 74 he was still working as a jobbing labourer.

Hannah (1842 - )

William and Sarah's third daughter was born in Cottingham and baptised Hannah on December 8th 1842. Hannah married Henry Dams who lived in Benefield, a village 10 miles east on the road to Oundle. He was a gamekeeper, like her own father. Henry was born in East Carlton in 1841 to Henry Dams and Elizabeth Smith. There is no convincing evidence that his family is related to the Dams family mentioned earlier. His grandfather, John, was born in Gretton in 1765 although his grandmother, Comfort Chapman came from Seaton in Rutland. John's parents were Richard Dams and Edith Craxford (fourth great grand aunt to one of the authors - [- ADC]). Henry and Hannah's marriage took place in Cottingham on March 2rd 1863 just a month before his older brother John tied the knot with Phoebe, the daughter of journeyman blacksmith Thomas Chambers from Middleton.

Henry became a grocer and then a butcher, working first from premises in High Street and later at the bottom of Corby Road. The couple were to have three sons and four daughters. One daughter, Ellen, married Henry Plaskitt from Lincolnshire, in 1902 and went to live with him in Grimsby. He, too, was a grocer. It appears that her older sister Annie also married a Plaskitt, probably Henry's brother. Son William married Annie Lucinda Gerrard, the daughter of draper Edward Gerrard on October 10th 1899. They moved away to Immingham near Grimsby, Lincolnshire where he became a grocery shop manager. In 1911, Henry was now an invalid and unable to work in the shop. He was being looked after by his wife and daughter Annie who described herself as Annie Plaskitt, widow.

Elizabeth (1850 - 1917)

The youngest of William and Sarah's children, Elizabeth, was born in the summer of 1850. She married James Gale, a coachman from Bluntisham, a village in Cambridgeshire 8 miles east of Huntingdon. Their son William was born the following year in Godmanchester, on the outskirts of Huntingdon town. By the end of the decade, they had made the move to the Highfields district of Leicester, first in Myrtle Road, then Skipworth Street and finally Hamilton Street. They had two more sons and a daughter. Elizabeth died in April 1917 and was buried in Sector N Plot 1613 of Welford Road Cemetery on the 11th of that month. Now a widower James moved to Dronfield Street, half a mile north of their original abode. He died at the end of November 1935 and was buried alongside his wife in Welford Road Cemetery. Their middle son, James, was admitted to the City General Hospital where he died in early March 1946. He was buried in the plot next door to his parents.

Further Reading

1: Cottingham and Middleton, Northamptonshire Soldiers 1914-1918 Christine Blenkarn has developed and devoted a website to honour the men of Cottingham and Middleton who served in the Great War. It notes principally those who were killed in action while doing so (as was the case of George Thomas Goode). It also looks at the impact on their families and the local community.

Links to the articles mentioned in the text are in italic capitals below:

Article A: From fellmongers to ironstone labourers From Gretton to Barrowden 1: The Skin trade
Article B: What is meant by a copyholder Elizabeth Tilley and the grocery connection
Article C: About The Liquorish family and Rockingham The Gretton Craxfords: Exodus II - All sorts of Liquorish
Article D: The families of Anthony and Elizabeth Beesworth Following the Beadsworth family to Cottingham: Part 1
Article E: The families of Isaac and Sophia Beadsworth Concerning the Beadsworth family in Leicester: Part 1
Article F: The Atkins family links to Cottingham The Sorrows of Mary Atkins
Article G: Life on Blind Lane and Barrack Yard We are the Barrack Yard Preservation Society
Article H: Old and new photographs around the village My Cottingham

References

1. Lane, Peter N (Editor): Index of Copyholders Part One: The Manor of Preston with Uppingham. Includes 1839 map of Uppingham. Uppingham Local History Study Group
2. St Peter & St Paul's Church, Uppingham. From an old postcard in Kevin Gordon's collection: The Churches of Great Britain and Ireland.
3. Pre-Norman Rockingham in "Rockingham Castle: 1000 Years of History." by Basil Morgan and Peter Brears: Heritage House Group 2005
4. Lyddington Bede House: English Heritage
5. Early history in "Lyddington Bede House" by Charmian and Paul Woodfield: English Heritage 1998
6. 14th Century - Local Government under the Guilds: Melton Mowbray Town Estate
7. Family tree graphic: Freeware Graphics: Vintage Kin Design Studio, Australia
8. St Nicholas Church, Bringhurst, © Pamela Weston: The Churches of Great Britain and Ireland.
9. Photograph of St James Church, Parish of the Six Saints circa Holt St Nicholas Church, Bringhurst Drayton Church History
10. Theft, Harborough Petty Sessions in Northampton Mercury Page 3 February 22nd 1840 The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
11. Before the Grand Jury at the Crown Court held at Leicester Castle: Proceedings in Leicester Herald Page 8 March 28th 1840 The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
12. Sudden death in Drayton near Great Easton. Leicester Chronicle Page 6 November 16th 1878. The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
13. 'The Spread Eagle': Photograph from Cottinghamhistory.co.uk A history of the village of Cottingham, Northamptonshire. Reproduced with permission .
14. Portrait of Sir John Henry Palmer, 7th Bt albumen print by Carmille Silvy: August 14th 1861. The Photographic Collection The National Portrait Gallery Ax55458. Reproduced with permission under this Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerciazl-NoDerivs 3.0 Licence
15. Photograph of East Carlton Hall, Northamptonshire © Cj1340; Permission for use granted under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licence from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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