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"Paddington Greens": Part 2 The Shardalow inheritance

by Alan D Craxford, Gail Cappelli, Cliff Shardalow and John Shardalow

With contributions from Joe Twitchin

Introduction

The first part of this article, John Hughes' Legacy, focused on the coming together of the Hughes and Craxford families in Pentonville and the establishment of a greengrocery business in Suffolk Street. This led to a marriage between the Hughes and Shardalow families and a subsequent movement to the developing suburb of Paddington. This second part follows generations of the Shardalows into the twentieth century.

The next generation

Delamere Crescent shop

The greengrocery shop in Delamere Crescent (about 1920)

Albert G Shardalow

Sidney Shardalow

Albert George junior was born on January 24th 1893. At the age of seven, (June 5th 1900), he was enrolled at the school of Holy Trinity with St Paul's on Bishop's Bridge Road. He remained a pupil there for nearly four years. His younger brother, Henry, was born on January 25th 1895. On June 2nd 1902 (19), he joined his brother at the school of Holy Trinity with St Paul's. He was a pupil for eighteen months until both brothers transferred to St Mary Magdalene School in Ranelagh Road.

In 1911, Albert and Ellen moved their seven children and greengrocery business a few hundred yards across Ranelagh Road to 35 Delamere Crescent. Oldest son, Albert George, was already at work as a porter in a bookstore. Second son, Henry, also had work as a porter for a "provisions merchant" (grocer). The next three children, Ellen (born 1897), Percival (born 1902) and Kate (born 1905) were at school. Sidney (born 1908) and Ethel (born 1910) were at home with their mother.

In common with other buildings in the area, this was a four storey multi-occupancy property with the shop on the ground floor. Other residents included Frederick Childs (a shop assistant in an ironmongers) his wife and daughter, 67 year old widow Mary Sarah Broadie who occupied a single room, house painter William Richards and his wife, Frenchman hairdresser Jules Durand, his wife and two children and French chef Emile Chaussey, his wife and infant daughter.

Albert and Ellen had one last daughter, Lilian Mary, who was born on January 4th 1915. Both their older sons enrolled in the Army during the First World War.

Ellen Shardalow
Henry and Bert

LEFT: Ellen Shardalow with grandchildren Marie and Albert (about 1925); RIGHT: The brothers in uniform (Henry standing)

Sons at war

Albert George Shardalow junior

Records of Albert's service are very sketchy but three service numbers are associated with his name. It is this which has caused some persisting confusion. He enrolled with the City of London Regiment, the Royal Fusiliers. Initially it appears he was enlisted as a private with the 25th battalion (number 3962) but was then posted to 3rd battalion. His next regimental number (7045) was issued sometime between August 16th and November 2nd 1916. The battalions were renumbered in 1917 and his new number, 253465, showed he was still with the 3rd. Later still, records suggest that he was transferred to the 4th battalion.

Where Albert was posted is not known, but the following scenario has been reconstructed from a variety of sources. During 1917, the 3rd battalion saw action in Macedonia on the Balkan Front. Up to July 1918, they moved progressively through Greece to Taranto, Italy. The battalion was then transferred to the Western Front where they were involved in the battles around Cambrai, France. The 4th battalion on the other hand spent the whole of the war on the Western Front.

The circumstances of Albert's death are not known for certain. It is known that he died on September 27th 1918 of heart failure in German hands. On that day, the 4th battalion were at Ribecourt. The French village of Ribecourt lies about 6 miles south of the town of Cambrai. This area close to the border with Belgium was in the heart of the German defensive Hindenburg Line and contained an important railway junction, the main supply route for German troops. Ribecourt had been taken in an offensive the previous year on the 20th November 1917 by the 6th Division, but at the conclusion of the Battle of Cambrai it remained on the British front line. It was lost in the German counter offensive in March 1918 and recaptured on the following 27th September.

Albert was buried at the Berlaimont Communal Cemetery Extension. This village, in the Mormal Forest midway between Cambrai (France) and Mons (Belgium) remained in German hands until November 1918. The cemetery was used for their own dead and for Allied prisoners of war. Albert's death is commemorated by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Examination of their records show a similar cemetery in the town of Aulnoye, two miles to the east (where another 4th battalion soldier had been buried on July 6th 1918). Each cemetery has about 50 war dead graves but the regiments and dates of death do not show any pattern linked to a particular action. It seems likely that these two communities were part of a chain of transit camps (Durchgangslager) which the Germans established behind the front along the Franco-Belgian border where groups of prisoners were held until there were enough of them to transport by train to main prisoner of war camps in Germany and Austria. An insight into the way that some captured men were treated in such camps is given in a series of interviews by Group Captain Frederick Winterbotham, an airman from the Royal Flying Corps, who was shot down over the German lines in 1917 near Passchendaele, Belgium (20).

The distance from Ribecourt to Berlaimont is about 35 miles. It seems unlikely that Albert would have been captured, transported that distance and died in the one day in the heat of battle and German retreat. If Albert transferred to the Western Front with the 3rd battalion in July 1918 and was posted to the 4th battalion on his arrival, that would leave a window of only a couple of months for his capture prior to September 27th. The circumstances of his mission and capture remain unknown.

Albert G Shardalow
CWGC commemoration
Albert's headstone

LEFT: Albert in uniform; CENTRE: The commemoration; RIGHT: The headstone

Henry (Harry) Walter Shardalow

Henryand Emma
Henry Shardalow

LEFT: Henry and Emma Shardalow; RIGHT: In uniform

At the start of the war, Henry was working as a tyre repairer for the Dunlop Rubber Company at its depot in Bellsize Road, Kilburn. He enrolled as a gunner (106516) with the Royal Field Artillery in August 1915 at Kilburn. Whilst in training at Swanage in Dorset, he sustained a broken bone in his right hand (the second metacarpal leading to his index finger). He saw service with the Expeditionary Force in France in 1916-17 and in Italy in 1917-18. In May 1918, his rank was changed to driver. He was discharged to the Class Z Army reserve in February 1919. He still had a residual stiffness in his grip which was assessed by a War Pensions Tribunal as a 2% disability.

After his discharge from the Army, Henry moved back to his parents' house. In June 1920, he married Emma, the 23 year old daughter of Paddington mason, John Ginn. They initially set up home at 122 Lancefield Street, just over a mile away to the north west in Kilburn. Within three years, they had moved back to Delamere Crescent where they moved into an apartment on the first floor at No. 23.

Henry joined his father in the shop and when Albert retired, took over the greengrocery business. He and Emma had two daughters: Marie, born on New Years Day 1923; Joan Kathleen born 1925.

Memories of Delamere Crescent

Personal recollections of Joe Twitchen

In the late 1930s, Delamere Crescent and its surroundings was a tightly knit community. At its western end was Lord Hills Road (renamed from Ranelagh road) which ran from the bridge over the railway at one end to the bridge over the canal at the other. It was near the canal that St Mary's Church stood, whose spire dominated the area. On one corner of Delamere Crescent and Lord Hills Road was a pub called 'The Old England' and the owner at that time was a Mr Gould. He parked his Wolsely, the only car in the street, outside the pub.

Joe Twitchin

Joe Twitchin senior on the balcony of No.35

We lived in the Georgian house (No. 35) next door to 'The Old England' that had Shardalow's greengrocers shop at street level. There were three more upper floors which were all tenanted. My father had been in the Machine Gun Corps during the first World War and joined the Home Guard in the Second. We lived on the top floor and below us, in separate single rooms, were Mrs Wellstead, a widow who used to loved jugged hare (oh the smell!!), and Mr Holgate, a widower, who was an ex-fireman, born in Yorkshire. My mum used to include him with our Sunday dinner. Henry Shardalow's mum lived on the next floor down, which was the first floor.

I should mention that like most local streets, houses in Delamere Crescent had a 'coal hole'. Henry used to store some vegetables in there because it was cool, I assume. Coal holes were used by the coal delivery firms who used to tip bags of coal into the hole from street level. Each floor of the house had a bell situated next to the fireplace. This was hand operated by turning the front and was connected by wire to what would have been the servants area when the place had seen better days. There was a balcony on the first floor which backed up against the wall of 'The Old England'. I distinctly remember that the whole house had only one lavatory and that was on the first floor. Henry had an orange box - they were wooden in those days - and as he picked up oranges at the markets which were individually wrapped with a tissue that was orange in colour he would remove the tissues to display the fruit and the tissues were stacked in the box in the lavatory for everyone's use.

St Mary Magdalene, Paddington

St Mary Magdalene Church (21)

Immediately behind the house there was a school. I do recall that the entrance to the school was in Lord Hills Road and had a sign above the entrance that said the building had a 99 year lease. As we were on the top floor of the house and slightly higher than the school, I could see into about three levels of classrooms. On the days when I was at home sick (or feigning sickness) I could see the kids in classes and teachers attending to the blackboards. Looking further to the right and past the school there was a nunnery behind high walls. This would be somewhere close to and behind where Henry Shardalow and his family lived at No. 25. From that window, I could look at the entire spire of St Mary Magdalene Church and tell the time by its clock so we did not require a clock during daylight periods.

[The school on Lord Hills Road was part of St. Mary Magdalene's Primary School. They had several buildings, for boys, girls and infants. St. Mary's Home, noted on the Paddington map of 1914, was listed in the 1911 census at Ranelagh Road as a maternity home with 24 inmates - all single. At other times it had been used as an orphanage. There were religious sisters working in the parish. They were a group of Sisters of Mercy sent out from the Community of Saint Mary the Virgin at Wantage Abbey, Oxfordshire. They did not have a convent as such but they lived in two ordinary side-by-side houses (which they called St Anne's) at 34 and 35 Delamere Terrace and worshipped in a chapel in the church. (22, 23) - Ed.]

There was a sweet shop at No. 33 (owned by the Bratazannis) which was empty except for a few bits of machinery he must have used for making ice cream. He had coin operated dispensers for Mars bars and Wrigleys Spearmint on the external walls of the shop which would have been amongst the first introduced to Britain. On the opposite side of Delamere Crescent was a dairy (shop) run by Mr Jones, then a doctor's surgery and next to him and on the opposite corner to the pub was a chemist shop run by Mr Dance. He had those very large bulbous shaped glass containers with coloured liquids in the windows for effect. Next to him but in Lord Hills Road was a 'bagwash'; a kind of early launderette.

The Robinsons lived at No. 27, and I played with Bill, their son, who was about my age. During the war, I distinctly remember us both climbing over the rubble and rummaging through the empty bomb damaged buildings which of course was dangerous but you know how kids are. I was friends with Wicks family at the top floor of that house. Dennis and I would look out of our respective windows and talk to each other ... being only wall thickness between us.

Blitz!

Eldest daughter, Ellen Amelia Shardalow (known as Nell to distinguish her from her mother) married Frederick Haynes at Holy Trinity Church on July 31st 1921. He was a Petty Officer in the Royal Navy aboard HMS Valiant. They went to live at 33 Herries Street, Kilburn. Third son, Percival, married Jessie Louise Prater in January 1923. They had a daughter, Violet, and a son, Frank. In the 1930s they set up home across the street from the Haynes at No. 52.

Albert George Shardalow died on December 7th 1933. In his will, he left the lease for the shop and dwelling house in Westbourne Terrace North to Ellen, his wife. The business in Delamere Crescent was left to his two older sons. In the years up to the beginning of the second world war, Henry worked hard keeping the business running.

Towards the end of 1938, Henry moved his family next door into the ground floor apartment of 25, Delamere Crescent. Three years previously, Emma's youngest sister, Clara Ginn, had married Charles John Gascoyne. They moved their three young children (Audrey, 1935; Sylvia, 1937 and John 1940) into the top floor accomodation. Completing the household, Emma's younger brother, Charles George Ginn, who had married Florence Lilian Richardson in 1936, moved into the flat on the middle floor. Their son, Eric, was born in 1938.

In September 1940, coinciding with the start of the Blitz (See "Further Study" below) the government introduced the Fire Watching Order 1940. Updated and superseded by later Orders, this provided fire prevention arrangements for various classes of buildings and defined the duties of Fire Watchers. These included keeping watch for the fall of incendiary bomb and outbreak of fire in a hostile attack, taking immediate steps where practicable to control such fire, summoning necessary assistance and being in a state of readiness to undertake such duties. Henry became a Fire Watcher.

Delamere destroyed

The destruction of Delamere Crescent (24) © English Heritage

On the night of May 10th 1941, Emma's mother, Polly Ginn, was staying with the family at No. 25. Late that night, Henry had gone round to No 35 to check on his mother and the shop. In the early hours of May 11th 1941, a stick of high explosive bombs fell across Paddington and Maida Vale. One struck the BBC studios in Delaware Road. Another scored a direct hit on 25 Delamere Crescent just as Henry arrived home. He was killed instantly, his body found by the front door with the family dog lying across his chest. The bodies of his wife, Emma, and daughter, Marie, were discovered inside under the dining room table. Clara Gascoyne and her three children, Emma's mother and Florence Ginn were also killed in the blast. Although buried in the rubble, George and Eric Ginn and John Gascoyne survived. Henry and Emma's younger daughter, Joan, was not at home having been away on a bicycle trip with friends.

The damage in the street was extensive. As the house disintegrated, it brought half of the houses on either side with it. The Robson family lived in the basement flat of No. 23. The mother and daughter were killed while the father and son survived. Mrs Wells, who lived on the top floor of No. 23 was buried in rubble as the house collapsed but survived. The husband and wife who lived in the basement of No. 25 were also killed. At No.35, windows were blown out and the walls were denuded of plaster leaving the wooden laths showing.

Continued in column 2...


Commemoration

Because of his status as a Fire Watcher, Henry, his wife and daughter are commemorated in the Civilian War Dead Rolls of Honour 1939-1945. Commissioned by a charter in February 1941, the Imperial War Graves Commission was empowered to collect and record the names of civilians who died from enemy action during World War II. The Roll consists of seven leather-bound volumes containing printed details of 66,375 fatalities. The books are kept in a case just outside the entrance to St George's Chapel, at the west end of Westminster Abbey.

CWGC commemoration
CWGC commemoration
CWGC commemoration

The commemorations: LEFT: Henry Walter Shardalow; CENTRE: Emma Shardalow; RIGHT: Marie Shardalow


Memorials to the fire watchers and fightgers of the London Blitz

LEFT: Westminster Abbey (25); CENTRE: The Civilian War Dead rolls; RIGHT: The Firefighters Memorial (26)

The end of the business

Franck Shardalow
The crew

LEFT: Frank Shardalow RN; RIGHT: Crew of the Motor Torpedo Boat (Frank is second from the right)

Percy and Jessie Shardalow
Percy and Jessie Shardalow

Percival and Jessie Shardalow

Henry's brothers, Percival and Sidney became legal guardian to his daughter, Joan. Because the damage had rendered 35, Delamere Crescent uninhabitable, Henry's mother, Ellen, moved to Herries Street to live with Frederick and Ellen Haynes, taking Joan with her. As soon as she was old enough, Joan joined the Women's Auxiliary Air Force in December 1942 where she served until February 1947.

The greengrocery business was re-established at premises in Bourne Terrace (the amalgamation of the original Westbourne Terrace North, Westbourne Square and Upper Westbourne Terrace). Nearby was a grocer and a baker. After the war, Percival and his family lived at Saltram Crescent, Kilburn. Daughter Violet married John (Johnny) James Brown in 1947 who went to work in the shop for his father in law.

After the war, the streets of the area were used as a backdrop to the 1949 Ealing Studios film "The Blue Lamp" (starring Jack Warner and Dirk Bogarde; directed by Michael Balcon) (27). There was much dereliction and in the early 1950s the area achieved notoriety as the domain of landlord Peter Rachman. Bombsite damage and slum clearance started in the area between the canal and the railway in the mid 1950s. This redevelopment continued over the course of the next 20 years until little of the original architecture remains. Many of the street names disappeared or were replaced.

Percival's wife, Jessie, died at the Royal Marsden Hospital on November 8th 1953. He continued running the business until his own death on Boxing Day 1955. After that, Johnny Brown continued to manage the shop for a while before he moved on to other stores. (He was to remain in the business until just before he died, the last shop being in Ickenham.) The shop remained open (still under the Shardalow name) until 1963 (28). The final demise of the business coincided with the demolition and rebuilding of Bourne Terrace and its old housing stock. The new road loosely followed the line of the route of the old one. A new estate of low rise blocks of flats was built. New shops and convenience stores emerged but the greengrocery business was gone and with it the association of the Shardalow family.

Bourne Terrace shop

The shop on Bourne Terrace

Footnote

Class Z Reserve (29): Authorised by an Army Order of 3 December 1918. There were fears that Germany would not accept the terms of any peace treaty, and therefore the British Government decided it would be wise to be able to quickly recall trained men in the eventuality of the resumption of hostilities. Soldiers who were being demobilised, particularly those who had agreed to serve "for the duration", were at first posted to Class Z. They returned to civilian life but with an obligation to return if called upon. The Z Reserve was abolished on 31 March 1920.

Further Study

The book 'The Longest Night'

The book cover

In 1940, after the evacuation of the Expeditionary Force from Dunkerque and the subsequent capitulation of France, Germany turned its attention to Britain. A planned invasion, code named "Operation Sealion", required air superiority over the English Channel and South Coast. The summer months became known as the Battle of Britain. In September 1940, tactics changed and so began the bombing of English cities - The Blitz. The campaign over London actually lasted until June 1941, but the operation launched over the night of May 10th / 11th was the heaviest, most widespread, most deadly and most destructive of any. Aircraft came in three waves. The first, just before midnight, dropped incendiaries. Half an hour later, the first wave of an estimated 188 bombers dropped their payloads in all areas of the city. A second wave of more than 100 planes came across just after one o'clock. At the end of the night 1486 people lay dead and 11,000 homes were destroyed.

May 11th 1941 was the last major incursion over London. After the war, one German Luftwaffe General recalled a meeting with Hitler where he was told "the bombing on May 10th 1941 was only to camouflage the beginning of 'Barbarossa', the Russian campaign". (30)

Gavin Mortimer has written an account of the background to and the events of that night using official material from many sources as well as the recollections of many of the survivors and relatives of the victims who lived through that night.

[A] Mortimer, Gavin: "The Longest Night: The Bombing of London on May 10th 1941" : The Berkeley Publishing Group, New York, USA. ISBN 0425 20557-6

[B] Bomb Site: Mapping the WW2 bomb census

The University of Portsmouth, in association with The National Archives, is mapping and geocoding the London WW2 bomb census (the recorded locations of sites where where bombs fell) between October 7th 1940 and June 6th 1941. This can be accessed at Bomb Site: About the project.

Relationships

Alan Craxford

Alan

Gail Cappelli

Gail

John Shardalow

John

Cliff Shardalow

Cliff

Alan Craxford is the fourth cousin (4 times removed) of Louisa Ann (Craxford) Hughes. Gail Cappelli is the granddaughter of Henry Walter Shardalow. Cliff Shardalow and John Shardalow are the great grandsons of Albert George Shardalow (snr), the son of Louisa Ann (Hughes) Shardalow.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Fr. Henry Everett, Vicar of St. Mary Magdalene & St.Peter, Paddington for his help with clarification of St Mary's Home, Paddington and the presence of the religious sisters in the parish.

Thanks, too, to Anna Markham and the volunteers at the London and Middlesex forum of RootsChat.Com, the Index of Genealogy, Family History and Local History for their help in tracing the Hughes family from their origins in Pentonville to the establishment of their business in Paddington. And to Andy Pugh who is a member of and active contributor to The Great War Forum for his help with the 4th battalion, Royal Fusiliers.

References

1. London, England, Baptisms, 1813-1906; London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921; London, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980: London Metropolitan Archives.
2. Tree logo © Vintage Kin Freeware Graphics: Vintage Kin Design Studio Australia
3. Fruiterers & Greengrocers: Post Office London Trades Directory 1856: Page 1696: Historical Directories University of Leicester
4. "Paddington" from Old and New London Volume 2: pp 204-224: by Arthur Edward Walford 1878. British History Online
5. "Paddington, Maida Vale" from A History of the County of Middlesex Volume 9 pp 212-217: edited by C R Elrington (Editor), T F T Baker, Diane K Bolton, Patricia E C Croot 1989. British History Online
6. St Thomas Charterhouse: Engraving by Edward Blore, London. "The Churchs of the Metrolpolis. - No. VI. The New Church of St. Thomas Charterhouse." The Illustrated London News (13 August 1842): 217. Immage scanned by Philip V Allingham 2006 © The Victorian Web. Reproduced in accordance with quoted terms.
7. Discussion of the Sailors Orphans Girls Home and School: London and Middlesex forums Rootschat.com, the Index of Genealogy, Family History and Local History
8. Sailors Orphans Girls Home and School: Report of opening in July 1869 in Morning Post Wednesday November 17th 1869. The British Newspaper Archive; © The British Library Board.
9. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
10. Sailors' Orphan Girls' School and Home: Photograph: © ceridwen, and licenced for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence
11. Photograph of Delamere Terrace, Paddington between the wars: Little Venice London Canals
12. "Paddington, Westbourne Green" from A History of the County of Middlesex Volume 9 pp 198-204: edited by C R Elrington (Editor), T F T Baker, Diane K Bolton, Patricia E C Croot 1989. British History Online
13. "Paddington, Building after c.1800" from A History of the County of Middlesex Volume 9 pp 182-185: edited by C R Elrington (Editor), T F T Baker, Diane K Bolton, Patricia E C Croot 1989. British History Online
14. Charles Booth (1840-1916) - a biography The Charles Booth Online Archive
at the Archives Division of the Library of the London School of Economics and Political Science.
15. Booth's descriptive maps of London Poverty, 1889: Old House Books
16. Delamere Crescent, Paddington: A page from Booth's notebook The Charles Booth Online Archive
at the Archives Division of the Library of the London School of Economics and Political Science.
17. Westbourne Terrace North, Paddington: A page from Booth's notebook The Charles Booth Online Archive
at the Archives Division of the Library of the London School of Economics and Political Science.
18. Corner of Chichester Place and Chichester Street: Old photograph abour 1902: 'Victory Cafe'Reel Streets, British Film Locations
19. School admission and discharge record: London Metropolitan Archives: London, England, School Admissions and Discharges, 1840-1911: Westminster Holy Trinity with St Paul's School 1900-1902
20. Frederick William Winterbotham: in The Mitchellfamily online website. Includes interviews of his war experiences taped in 1984.
21. St Mary Magdalene Church, Paddington: Photograph: Abbey photograph: © Stephen Richards, and licenced for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence
22. Personal Communication - Fr.Henry Everett, Vicar of St. Mary Magdalene & St.Peter, Paddington: December 2012.
23. St Mary Magdalene's Maternity Home and Sisters of Mercy, 1911 England Census: London Paddington, Paddington Central, Enumerator District 13. (RG14/53)
24. Delamere Crescent bomb damage abt 1962: Photographer: John Gay http://viewfinder.english-heritage.org.uk/search/reference.aspx?uid=129944&index=24&form=advanced&county=GREATER LONDON&who=Gay Ref: No: AA064513 © English Heritage Reproduced with permission
25. Westminster Abbey, London Photograph: Abbey photograph: © Christine Matthews, and licenced for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence
26. Firefighters Memorial (Blitz Memorial), near St Paul's Cathedral: Photograph: Abbey photograph: © Martin Addison, and licenced for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence
27. Paddington Green: Images from 'The Blue Lamp'Reel Streets, British Film Locations
28. "Shardalow, PF, Grngrcr & Frtr, 42 Bourne ter W2 CUNningham 0823" British Phone Books 1880-1984: London Directory 1963 London Surnames S-Z: Shap-Sharman's Pg 3071
29. Reserves and reservists The Long, Long Trail The British Army of 1914-1918 for Family Historians.
30. Interview with Adolf Galland (1912-1996): Luftwaffe Wing Commander 1941: The World at War Series 1 Episode 4 "Alone". Thames Television (1973 - 1974)

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