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The Nessworthys of Tyneside: Chapter 3. The Beverley Brothers

by Alan D. Craxford and Anne Brooks

Preface

Of all the branches and individuals of this family tree, Robert Ridley Nessworthy (RR) has probably mystified researchers the most. A decade ago when this site was first being established, the view then current was expressed in Anne Brooks' article "Would the second Robert Nesworthy please stand up!!". Variously labelled a bigamist and at times considered to be two separate people, he was almost certainly neither. Our detailed knowledge of him remains somewhat sketchy. However placed into the context of his and other family members' surroundings an ever increasing level of evidence is revealed which in isolation may be circumstantial but when taken together becomes compelling. That he maintained two families at the same time, one in South Shields and one in North Shields, in not in question. He only married once, and, as we shall see, it becomes clear that not only were both families aware of one another but were also in communication. Bigamy was a serious offence in Victorian England with quite draconian penalties. RR's true condition can be defined as an 'honest polygamist' (1)

It is fitting, too, that we include an account of RR's younger brother, Ambrose, in this article. Although his junior by nearly 20 years, they were to share a similar fate and died only a few of years apart in an unexpected quarter. This is the third part of the Nessworthy saga which started with Chapter 1: Matthew the mariner

Robert Ridley Nessworthy: The Honest Polygamist

"Robert Ridley Nesworthy Head Age 66 Married 50 years Shipwright (INFIRMITY) DEAD" (2) . So declared Elizabeth Nessworthy on her household's return for the census which was held on the night of Sunday April 2nd 1911. We will never know for certain whether this statement was made as an innocent mistake or whether it was crafted by design. The 1911 census for England and Wales was different from its predecessors in that the form was the first that the householder filled in himself rather than by the enumerator following an interview. The heading of the first column is however clear that it should include everyone who "passed the night in this dwelling and was alive at midnight". The enumerator (the official responsible for distributing the forms and collecting them once completed) has corrected this entry by heavily crossing through it and then drawing a red ink line to mark it officially deleted. However it is clear that Elizabeth did not fill out the form herself as it is signed, "Mrs Nesworthy, her mark". The most likely explanation is that she dictated the contents to her son, William, who filled the form in for her.

In the beginning

RR was born on Tuesday, January 7th 1845, the first son of Matthew and Mary Nosworthy. Matthew, a mariner, was originally from Devon but had moved to the North East to seek work on the Tyneside colliers. The couple had married at St Hilda's Church, South Shields in December 1842. They were now living with Mary's parents, Robert and Elizabeth Ridley, in a house in Marshall's Quay, a lane at the western end of Shadwell Street. It has been noted previously that the spelling of the family's surname changed over time. RR was entered in the birth register as 'Nurseworthy'.

RR grew up in a house full of people. As a six year old, he already had two younger brothers and was in the company of his grandparents, two uncles and an aunt. Over the course of the next ten years his father was away from home for weeks at a time delivering coal to London and the continent but RR found himself with another four brothers. One sister, Isabella, was born in 1854 but sadly died before her second birthday. In his early teens, RR became an apprentice at a boat builder's yard. By the census of 1861, he had been joined in this occupation by his younger brother, Matthew Nessworthy. His older brother, James Ridley Nessworthy, had left home and was an apprentice mariner aboard the brig Rebecca Jane.


Marriage and expansion in South Shields

Marriage notice

Notice of marriage (4)

St Hildas Church

St Hilda's about 1901 (5)

RR married Elizabeth Young in a service at St Hilda's Church, South Shields, on May 19th 1862. The 20 year old bride was the daughter of seaman Robert Young who was originally from Wells in Norfolk and Mary Ann Trail. The Young family had been living in Mary Ann's father's lodging house at 51 Wapping Street, just yards from where RR had lived. Thomas Trail had been described in a previous census as a 'worn out seaman, pauper'.

RR and his new bride moved into his parents home at Marshall's Quay. As well as the other youngsters, his mother was looking after her latest arrival, named Thomas Weightman, who had been born the previous year. Elizabeth had been about four months pregnant at the time of the wedding and duly presented RR with a daughter on October 9th 1862. They named her Mary Ann after her grandmother.

St Stephens Church

St Stephen's Church (6)
(also known as the pilot's church)

More children followed for both generations in rapid succession. Mary presented Matthew with their eighth son, Ambrose, on November 29th 1863 and ninth (and final) son, Charles, on June 3rd 1865. In between, RR and Elizabeth's first son, a boy they named Matthew after his grandfather, was born on January 2nd 1864. Sadly, the boy did not see his first birthday and died on December 2nd. He was buried at St Stephen's Church, South Shields, two days later. The cause of death was given as 'dentition' and convulsions, both of which had been ongoing for two weeks. A neighbour who lived at Hopper's Quay, Wapping Street, Elizabeth Lloyd was present when the child died and also registered the death. Elizabeth was already well into her next pregnancy and duly gave birth to another boy on May 2nd 1865. He was baptised Matthew in honour of his grandfather and dead sibling. So, for a time, Robert and Elizabeth's two sons each had uncles who were younger than they were.

('Dentition' is a term synonymous with teething. It was wrongly considered a cause of death and became so widespread that in 1842 it accounted for 4.8% of all infants dying in London. The underlying cause of death could have been any of the common infantile ailments, including infection, which occurred at the same time that the child was teething (7). - ED)

The second half of the decade was one of repeating sadness for the family. In August 1866, presumably whilst travelling on board her husband's vessel Palladium, RR's mother, Mary, died in Hamburg, Germany. It seems likely that the responsibility for the care of his young siblings now fell to Elizabeth. Given the closeness of the community in the Shadwell Street area, she was probably aided by the next door neighbour, Elizabeth Templeman. Married to William Templeman, a fisherman from Dundee Scotland, the family had moved into the house next door in Marshall's Quay sometime in the late 1850s. The sequence of events over the next two or three years show that Elizabeth Nessworthy would have been grateful for that help.

On April 27th 1867, Matthew married again. His new bride, Mary Bainbridge was the widow of Ephraim Meech - a mariner who had drowned in a wreck off the coast of Holland in 1863. The service took place at St Mary's Church, Tyne Dock and was witnessed by Robert Ramsdale, the husband of Mary's sister Ellen Bainbridge, and Mary Jane Ridley, the wife of Robert Ridley (the brother of Mary, Matthew's first wife). Almost immediately, Matthew moved his wife and children to a property in Garden Lane, South Shields leaving the Marshall Quay house to RR and his family. During this time, Elizabeth was heavily pregnant and gave birth to another son, Robert, on August 30th 1867. Within a year, she became pregnant again and Elizabeth was delivered of a baby girl on June 5th 1869. She was baptised Eleanor in a service shared with her brother, Robert, at St Hilda's Church on August 25th that year.

More tragedy was to follow. On January 30th 1870, four year old Matthew died. The cause of his death was put down to 'heart disease'. His burial took place four days later. Then on July 19th 1870, just over a month after her first birthday, daughter Eleanor died. This time the cause of death was attributed to bronchitis. She was buried in St Stephen's Church graveyard on July 22nd. On both occasions, Elizabeth Templeman had been present when the infants died and recorded the deaths. What is also curious is both register entries show that no medical attendant had been present.

By the time of the census which was taken on Sunday April 2nd 1871, Elizabeth was left on her own with her two remaining children, 6 year old Mary Ann and 4 year old Robert. However, the return does show just how closely knit the neighbourhood had become. William and Elizabeth Templeman were still her next door neighbours. One door away was their son, William Templeman (born 1840) and his wife Elizabeth Berry. Their neighbours included a 55 year old widow and nurse, Eleanor Berry, who we assume was Elizabeth's mother. Finally, next door to them was the family of Robert Ridley and Frances Ord. Robert was the brother of Matthew Nessworthy's first wife, Mary. Lodging with them at the time of the census was RR's younger brother, William.

Why North Shields?

The 1871 England and Wales Census shows RR to be resident in North Shields. Before we examine the entry in detail, the question to be answered first is why he should be found north of the river. The middle decades of the nineteenth century had seen a burgeoning shipbuilding industry on both sides of the estuary. From the earliest returns, RR had been noted as a carpenter or shipwright. There is no evidence to indicate where he served his apprenticeship or who employed him.

North Shields and South Shields had shared a socioeconomic and geographic history for centuries. This had been forced upon the two settlements as early as the eleventh century when King Henry I granted the town of Newcastle upon Tyne a monopoly of all trade on the river. This was reinforced by a decree that only freemen of the town were allowed to build ships on the Tyne. This was challenged by Robert Wallis who built a repair yard in 1720 near Coble Landing adjacent to the eastern end of Shadwell Street. At the beginning of the nineteenth century shipbuilders and shipowners saw financial advantage in the construction of shipping at the coast and increasing numbers of yards were opened. In tandem with this, there was an increasing number of shipwrights, carpenters and allied employees who formed themselves into Benefit Clubs, Societies and Unions. There were waves of strikes over various issues including one in 1851 which demanded that employers should be prohibited from taking on apprentices for less than a term of seven years.

In due course the Wallis site was taken over by Thomas Dunn Marshall who continued to built wooden sailing ships but also introduced steam driven iron vessels to the river. When he retired in 1859, his sons took over the business. The yard was deemed too small and the company moved the shipbuilding arm across the river to Willington Quay in 1861. (8) It is likely that the firm would have wished to keep their experienced workforce together and so moved many of them too.

There had always been direct communications by ferry across the river although before the early 1800s these craft were often hand rowed and the crossing was fraught with danger. To counter this, a suspension bridge was proposed in 1824 to connect high ground in both North and South Shields. The plan collapsed but had it been built the structure would have been 800 feet in length between the piers and 100 feet above the high water mark allowing virtually all vessels to pass under it. However it led to the establishment of ferry companies which started to use steamboats and proper landing stages. In 1847 the Tyne Direct Ferry Company was founded whose one way fare, a halfpenny, gave rise to the popular name for the ferry.

With the benefit of hindsight, it becomes obvious that the 1871 census return mentioned above is both incomplete and inaccurate, greatly adding to the confusion surrounding RR's story. He is living in the house of dockyard labourer, James Sheals (whose surname in transcripts has been rendered as Ghent!), at 3, Queen Street, North Shields. James, a 55 year old widower, came from the tiny fishing village of Winterton-on-Sea which was on the coast of Norfolk, eight miles north of Great Yarmouth. Listed with him in the house were three children: a 12 year old son, Frederick; a 13 year old daughter, Hanna and a 6 year old daughter, Hannah M. All had been born in Yarmouth. RR was entered as married, 26 years old, ships carpenter and son-in-law.

Who were the Sheals?

James Lamb Bedingfield Sheals was born in 1816, the son of William Sheals and Lucy Bedingfield. He had a brother, William, of about the same age and a sister, Lucanna, who was four years younger. James married Anna Maria Spooner in Great Yarmouth on March 6th 1837. Over the course of the next 20 years they were to have eight children (although second son, James, died in 1854 at the age of four years). James worked as a mariner whilst the family lived in Norfolk. It seems likely that Anna Maria travelled with him on his voyages at times as their third daughter, Caroline, was born in the Walker district of Newcastle upon Tyne on July 24th 1846.

Yarmouth A Row

A Row, Yarmouth (10)

The Rows were a particular feature of the town of Great Yarmouth. Prior to 1800 building was restricted to the very tight area inside the old walls. The local solution to this was to build rows of dwellings parallel to each other with very narrow passageways in between. Initially there was a wide variety of property which catered equally for the well to do and merchants down to those of more humble means. Ultimately 145 such rows were constructed (9). By the time of the census in 1861, the family were living at Row 79, King Street. Their oldest daughter, Emma (born 1839), found work in the neighbourhood as a charwoman. Maria and her next oldest daughters, Susannah (born 1843) and Caroline, were all working from home as lace spinners. The three youngest were 9 year old Frederick, 6 year old Ellen and 3 year old Anna Maria. At baptism Susannah had been given both Lamb and Bedingfield as middle names; James and Ellen, were given Spooner.

St Nicholas Church

St Nicholas Church, Yarmouth (10)

In the middle years of the 1860s, James moved his family north to North Shields. Prior to the move, Susannah had married Frederick, the son of John Jones a barrel maker, at St Nicholas Church, Great Yarmouth on May 21st 1861. Frederick was 22 years old and a soldier. He had given his address as the Military Hospital in the town. Her mother acted as a witness. We know nothing more about Frederick: what conflict he served in or whether he was injured. What is more, we have been unable to discover anything further about him in the archives after the date of the service. Also before the move, Susannah's younger sister, Caroline, became pregnant and gave birth to a baby girl on November 9th 1864. She was named Hannah Maria.

Tragedy struck the family twice after the move from Norfolk had been completed. On January 1st 1866, James' wife Anna Maria died. She was 51 years old and had been ill with tuberculosis for twelve months. Then on October 4th of the same year, his oldest daughter, Emma died too. She was 27 years old. The cause of death was given as dropsy - probably indicating kidney failure from a chronic infection. She had been living at 4 Hudson Street with her younger sister Caroline who reported her death. There is a possibility that Caroline married in 1871 but she has not been traced in the records further.

It is now possible to make sense of the 1871 census return. It is not known when RR took up residence with the Sheals family and whether there was any previous history between them. It does seem certain that he had been living with them for more than a couple of years. A son, James William Nessworthy, had been born to RR and Susannah Sheals at Queen Street on April 19th 1870. Susannah was listed on the birth register as Nessworthy formerly Shields when RR informed of the birth. Susannah and her infant son have never been found on the pages of the 1871 census. James' daughter, Ellen, is also missing from this census although she does reappear in later records. That leaves James with his youngest son, Frederick and daughter Hanna. Six year old 'Hannah M' was his granddaughter - Caroline's child.

The 1870s - South

Shadwell Street 1
Shadwell Street 2

Two views of Shadwell Street before (LEFT) and after (RIGHT) the building of the Corporation Staith in the 1870s. The Staith passed over the Old Custom House at roof level. It was used to transport rubbish and 'midden waste' from the town into the sea. The corner at the left hand edge leads into Marshall's Quay. (11)

Elizabeth spent the decade in Marshall's Quay. She had been in the later stages of her sixth pregnancy when the census had been taken and a daughter, Elizabeth, was born on June 20th 1871. Another child, James, followed on October 21st 1873. The little girl, Elizabeth, became unwell during the spring of the following year. She died on July 20th 1874, just three years old. Neighbour Eleanor Berry was present when she died and reported her death. The cause was given as 'tabes mesenterica and convulsions'. Elizabeth's eighth pregnancy ended in tragedy too. A girl they decided to name Frances was born on March 23th 1876 but survived only fifteen minutes. On this occasion it was Elizabeth Templeman who registered the death which was attributed to the nonspecific term 'debility'.Her next arrival, also called Elizabeth, came in the early months and was baptised at St Stephen's Church on April 24th 1878.

Waterloo Place

Waterloo Place, North Shields

At the time of the census of 1881 the occupancy of Marshall's Quay had remained remarkably stable. Elizabeth Nessworthy was now earning some money for the family working in the neighbourhood as a charwoman. She had her two surviving sons, Robert (aged 13) and James (7) and daughter Elizabeth (3) with her. Her oldest daughter, Mary Ann Nessworthy, was working as a domestic servant. She was living with shop owners George and Frances Richardson, whose house was 3 Waterloo Place in North Shields.

Next door to Elizabeth lived the now widowed Frances Ridley and her children William and Christiana. Frances' husband, Robert, was the brother of Matthew Nessworthy's first wife, Mary Ridley. Then, on either side, were the two Templeman households. The older William and Elizabeth accommodated their son Samuel who was a butcher but at the time unemployed. The younger William (now an unemployed sailmaker) and Elizabeth Templeman had their two young sons (Alexander and William) with them. Their 13 year old daughter Elizabeth was staying with her grandmother, Elizabeth Berry, who had moved just around the corner into Hospital Quay.

(Tabes mesenterica is an archaeic term for a wasting condition affecting predominantly childhood, It was characterised by chronic inflammation of the lymph glands in the abdominal cavity and mesentery. This led to caseous degeneration of the glands, a hallmark of tuberculosis. It was said to be due to drinking infected or contaminated cows milk. There is a fascinating contemporary account of the condition, diagnosis and treatment written by Gorton and Newburgh in 1866 which is available on line (12). - ED}

The 1870s - North

Meanwhile in North Shields everything was changing. On February 24th 1873, James Sheals married again. His bride was 55 year old Elizabeth Norris. Born in 1818, she was the daughter of Edmund Scorer, a master mariner. Her first husband, Charles Norris, also a mariner, had died in 1865. The marriage took place in St Nicholas Church (nine years before the Diocese of Newcastle was created and the church became its cathedral). James's son Frederick and daughter Susannah were the witnesses. Interestingly Susannah made her mark as 'Sheals' - no doubt reflecting her actual status. The marriage was not destined to last long and Elizabeth died before the end of the decade.

Still in the same year and still living in Queen Street, Susannah gave birth to her first daughter, Mary, on May 26th 1873. More babies were to follow: Isabella on June 25th 1875; Robert on August 15th 1887 and Frederick on October 1st 1880. During this time, Susannah and her brood moved away from her father's home. Robert had been born at King Street, North Shields; Frederick at Reed Street. At the end of the decade too, James Sheals had moved to Potter Street, Willington Quay, Wallsend, the house of his married daughter Ellen and her husband William Kirton. Also present were his daughter Hannah and her husband Richard Beaty (who had married in 1880), his son Frederick and his wife Mary Ann Campbell (married in 1881), and his granddaughter, Hannah.

Fawcus Buildings, Tynemouth 1933
Fawcus 2

Two views of the Fawcus Buildings, Reed Street about 1930 (13)

By April 1881, RR and Susannah were installed at a new address at 5 Fawcus Buildings, a terrace which ran between Reed Street and Upper Toll Street. With them were their three sons and two daughters - the four youngest were attending local schools. This row of houses had originally been built by the Pow and Fawcus Company, a chain and anchor manufacturing concern, for members of their workforce. As noted above, RR's oldest South Shields daughter was working in North Shields at the time. As Waterloo Place was barely half a mile away from Reed Street, it is inconceivable that they were not in close contact and it is also likely that RR had made the arrangement for Mary Ann.

The move to Wellington Street

Into yet another decade, Elizabeth got on with her life in Marshall's Quay. Oldest daughter Mary Ann Nessworthy returned to South Shields from her job across the river to marry Thomas Elliott at St Stephen's Church on March 5th 1882. He was a rivetter in the shipyards. The couple took a two room apartment at 16 Wellington Street. Late in 1881, Elizabeth had found herself pregnant again and another daughter, Isabel was born on June 26th the following year.

Eventually the time came for Elizabeth to abandon her long time family home in Marshall's Quay. She became pregnant for the eleventh and final time in 1886. Towards the end of her pregnancy she moved into Wellington Street with Thomas and Mary Ann Elliott. Her son, William, was born there on January 24th 1887. Elizabeth's oldest surviving son, Robert, had become a carpenter in the shipyards. He married Jane Harrison at St Stephen's Church on October 30 1887. They too took a small apartment at 16 Wellington Street. Jane's father, William Harrison who was a grocer who originated in Cumbria, signed the register.

More shuffling of domicile had taken place amongst the various branches of the Nessworthy family by the time of the 1891 census of South Shields, most of it concentrated in Wellington Street. Elizabeth had taken one room in number 26 with her four youngest children; 15 year old James was earning some money as a cartman. Elizabeth's mother in law, Mary Nessworthy, had two rooms in number 19 with her 19 year old twin daughters and youngest son James. At number 16, daughter Mary Ann and her husband Thomas Elliott had four children while son Robert and his wife Jane had two sons. Long term friends, the Templeman family, had moved to number 13.

Reed Street, North Shields

Holy Saviour, Tynemouth

Holy Saviour Church Tynemouth
(the spire was removed about 1950)

RR continued to work as a boat builder throughout the 1880s and his North Shields family remained settled in their home in the Fawcus Buildings. Their property, number 5, was the nearest to Reed Street. Susannah had another son, John, in the spring of 1883. Two daughters followed but sadly, both died. Susannah was born on August 25th 1885 but died within a month. The death was described as 'debility'. Elizabeth was born on October 3rd 1866 but died a month before her first birthday of an infantile diarrhoeal disease.

On a happier note, their oldest daughter, Mary, married labourer Henry Wait at Holy Saviour's Church, Tynemouth on July 26th 1890. Henry was living at 65 Little Bedford Street while Mary was still at home. RR was one of the witnesses who signed the register. Henry's father, Robert had been a farm labourer before moving the family to 78 Reed Street (the house on the corner of the Fawcus Buildings) by 1881 which is probably where the couple met. After the wedding they set up home at 107 Charlotte Street, North Shields. Henry was described as a labourer on the marriage certificate but by 1891 he was working as a ship's stoker.

By early 1891, RR and Susannah still had five children at home. James William, now a 20 year old had become a fireman on board a steam ship. Isabella had left education to help her mother around the house. The three youngest boys were still at school.


All change and the century ends with a mystery

The 1890s were a hectic decade for RR and his North Shields family. In May 1891, fourteen year old Robert had a minor brush with the law. He was brought up before the magistrates for brawling in the street with some of the neighbourhood lads. He was fined 2s 6d. plus costs. James William Nessworthy moved out of the family home to a house in Stephenson Street, North Shields. He obtained employment as a bargeman on the Tyne. It was from Stephenson Street that he married Elizabeth Chater at Christ Church, North Shields on April 3rd 1893. Elizabeth was the daughter of Thomas and Jane Chater who were living close by at 16 Church Way. The marriage was witnessed by James Williams' sister, Isabella, and her fiance, Joseph Nott. Elizabeth's father, Thomas, was also a mariner. The family lived in a house in George Tavern Entry which was adjacent to the house RR shared with the Sheals family. The young James William and Elizabeth had probably played together for the first few years of their lives.

Isabella Nessworthy married Joseph Nott at St Hilda's Church, South Shields on February 5th 1894. Joseph was born in 1873, the son of slater Joseph Nott and his wife Lucy. The Nott family had lived at 93 Church Street since the late 1850s. Before that, grandfather Stephen Nott, a cordwainer, had plied his trade in Reed Street. The couple were in temporary accommodation at 20 Barrington Street, a hundred yards away from the church. The marriage was witnessed by RR himself and by Isabella's married sister Mary Wait. After the celebration, the newlyweds moved into his family home in North Shields. Joseph trained as a carpenter.

Meanwhile in South Shields, RR and Elizabeth's son James had become a platelayer's labourer on the railways. On Christmas Day 1895 he married Ellen Clark, a girl from Gateshead who was a couple of years younger than he was. Within a year, their next daughter Elizabeth was courting joiner Robert Aynsley. They married at St Stephen's Church on October 4th 1896; Elizabeth's brother James acting as a witness.

Then as the century was drawing to a close, another twist appears to have been added to the mix. RR and Susannah's third son Frederick married Ursula Gavin. The family's folk memory of this union was always somewhat romantic but vague. It was said that Ursula was under age so the couple ran away to get married. The truth turns out to be more matter of fact than that and also probably explains the certain eventualities of this saga. That Ursula was young is beyond doubt, but before the Age of Marriage Act 1929, persons under the age of 16 years could marry with parental consent. She was born to David Gavin, a sailor and ship's rigger, and his wife Ursula Wilhelmina Willan on May 9th 1884, the oldest of six children. The family lived in Camden Street, North Shields. Frederick, who was a general labourer, married Ursula at St Stephen's Church, South Shields on July 23rd 1889. Ursula was six months pregnant at the time. The couple gave their address as Livingstone Street which was a few streets south of the church boundary. It is also noted at this juncture that RR's wife, Elizabeth, was living in Wellington Street and Ursula's great aunt Ann Gavin lived on the other side of the churchyard at 3 Military Road. One of the witnesses was Jane Smith (too common to be of obvious significance but Smith was Ann Gavin's maiden name). After the ceremony, the couple returned to North Shields to join Frederick's older brother James William in Stephenson Street. Ursula's baby, Frederick, was born October 26th 1899.

Death comes to South Shields

The census of 1901 finds RR reunited with his wife, Elizabeth, in their one room apartment at 40 Wellington Street, South Shields. With them wass their youngest son fourteen year old William who was working as a cart boy. Their next door neighbours at number 42 were their son Robert and his wife, Jane, with five of their young children. On the other side were Jane's parents William (now a retired grocer) and Jane Harrison with their grandson 12 year old Thomas Nessworthy.

So it was that RR had been listed on three consecutive decennial censuses in North Shields before finally reverting back to a South Shields residence in 1901. His name is absent from the corresponding returns for South Shields and then North Shields. There is perhaps one simple explanation for this. It seems likely that RR spent his working days in North Shields and, as each census was taken at midnight on a Sunday, that's where he was, ready for the Monday morning shift. The most curious aspect in all this is that Susannah is missing totally from the records of the 1890s. Her father James died on October 5th 1899 and was buried in Wallsend Cemetery. His children continued to live in Potter Street, Willington Quay. The Nessworthy family had quit the house in Fawcus Buildings and Susannah's name has not been found in the census returns of 1901. When did RR return to South Shields? We will probably never know. However if this had been as early as 1893, it would help to explain further why both daughter Isabella and son Frederick, who were living in North Shields, had their marriage ceremonies in South Shields and immediately returned across the river.

Christ Church North Shields today

Christ Church, North Shields

At the same time, most of the North Shields offspring were clustered around a small area in the town. James William and Elizabeth had moved with their young son Robert to Elsdon Street. Joseph and Isabella Nott were still living in Church Street next door to his family whilst she was heavily into her third pregnancy. RR and Susannah's second son Robert, now working as a brass moulder in a foundry, had married Hannah Wile on March 2nd 1901 at Christ Church just before the census was taken. She was the daughter of miner George Wile who signed the register. The couple moved into the Wile family home in Albion Street. Frederick and Ursula do not appear in the census but by April the following year with the birth of their son James William they had moved to Cross Camden Lane. Frederick and Robert both acted as witnesses when their younger brother John married Ellen McKell Grant Sutherland Haywood at Christ Church on January 2nd 1905.

There are not many records which chart RR's activities over the next few years but his decline, when it came, was both sudden and dramatic. We know that he continued to live with Elizabeth in Wellington Street. He had seen his step mother, Mary (Bainbridge) Nessworthy suffer a stroke and die in August 1895. Twelve months later his father Matthew had been admitted to the Union Workhouse at Harton Lane. Matthew spent six years in the institution before he died with dementia. Next to go was his younger brother, Matthew, who died of bronchitis on October 27th 1907. He was 58 years old. RR reported the death. Ultimately, as we shall see later, RR himself did not live to see the next census day.

Continued in column 2...

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First added: September 20th 2014
Last update: September 29th 2016

Ambrose Nessworthy - The Virtuous Husband

Ambrose Nessworthy was born on November 29th 1863, the eighth son (and ninth child) of Matthew Nessworthy and Mary Ridley. As a toddler in the parental home in Marshall's Quay he was surrounded by other young children. He had four older brothers aged 10 years and under. One more brother, Charles, was to follow him in 1865. RR, his oldest brother by 18 years, had married less than a year before he was born and was already having children.

It is clear from the records that Ambrose's boyhood was not a happy one. His father was away at sea for much of the time, trips on which Mary may have gone too. Tragedy struck on August 19th 1866 when the 3 year old's mother died in Hamburg, Germany. Initially, he was probably looked after by RR and his wife, Elizabeth. Then, in what may have seemed a whirlwind of bewildering changes to the boy, within a year his father had remarried and the family, including his four youngest siblings had been moved from Marshall's Quay to a new address in Garden Lane, South Shields.

Ambrose's father returned to his voyages to Holland and Hamburg in Germany almost immediately. Ambrose's new step-mother does not appear to have been able to handle her new charges. She was pregnant at the time of the marriage and gave birth to a daughter in December 1867. Sadly the baby died within twenty four hours. In May 1868, the not yet five year old found himself and his four brothers abandoned and destitute on the streets of Exeter, over 350 miles from home. Matthew Nessworthy had to appear before the bench at the Guildhall in the town to plead for funds to help him return his children home. He could offer no explanation as to how or why Mary had done such a thing.

Matthew moved the family again to a house in Herron Street. Mary gave birth to another daughter in 1870 who died at the age of two years. Almost immediately Ambrose was presented with half twin sisters on November 25th 1872. The cumulative effects of these experiences took their toll on the young lad. On the Tuesday morning, June 24th 1873, he was at Tyne Dock, presumably taken there by Matthew who was getting ready for a voyage. An impulse overtook him and he stole a silver watch which belonged to Kristina Patterson, a stewardess of the steamer Elgin (14). He was arrested by the dock policeman and remanded in custody. He appeared before the bench on the following day. Ambrose admitted that he had stolen the watch. He had sold the workings from the watch for six pence and kept the case. He said that he had done so because he wanted to be sent on board the Wellesley training ship. His case was reviewed on the Friday. In view of his family history, Ambrose was granted his wish and was sent to the Wellesley for a period of five years.

"A shelter for Tyneside waifs" (15, 16)

The Marine Society which was founded in the 1750s was set up to provide institutions to train young boys for a life at sea. Within this framework were a number of different facilities. Some were designed as training grounds for the potential officer class, some as reformatories for the juvenile criminal, others were Industrial Schools for pauper children or those covered by the Poor Law.The Industrial Schools Act 1866 gave magistrates the power to refer destitute children below the age of 14 years to such an institution.

Wellesley 1
Wellseley Street 2

The Training Ship Wellesley: (LEFT) At anchor off Coble Dene: Watercolour by B B Hemy 1880 (17) and (RIGHT) At anchor by the Fish Quay, North Shields 1907 (18)

The Wellesley Training Ship Institution was established in 1868 through the efforts of Tyneside shipowner James Hall and a group of local businessmen. His plan was to 'provide shelter for Tyneside waifs and train young men for service in both the Royal and Merchant Navies'. An ex-navy vessel HMS Cornwall was obtained in 1868 and moored off the Coble Dene, North Shields. This was replaced by HMS Boscowan in 1873. Both vessels bore the name Wellesley. In 1874, the Training Ship was moved to its final permanent home off the North Shields Fish Quay with the opening of the Albert Edward Dock. There was accommodation for 300 boys on board. Discipline was strick and the emphasis was on education and work experience. The boys were subject to yearly examinations and were graded as they would have been in an ordinary school.

Ambrose left the Institution in the late 1870s and by April 1881 he was serving as an apprentice seaman aboard the brig Mary. This 182 ton vessel was under the Mastership of John Jameson and was registered in the North Yorkshire port of Whitby. The census that year shows it to be moored in the River Tyne and suggests it had a crew of six. He served on a variety of ships during the next decade including the Polo. It was probably during this time that he picked up a souvenir which was to haunt him and his family life for many years to come.

Married lives

On April 13th 1886, Ambrose married Joan Lennie at the Register Office in Newcastle upon Tyne. She was the 26 year old daughter of Stevedore, David Lennie and his wife Betsey Spence. The couple had been born and married in Stromness on the Orkney Islands which was where Joan and her two sisters, Elizabeth Jane and Jessie, were brought up. Ambrose and Joan gave their address at the time of the wedding as 44, St Ann's Street in the city which ran parallel to the river behind the Quayside.

Soon after they were married, Ambrose and Joan settled in a house at 39 Wolseley Road, Byker. Wolseley Road was the direct connection between Stephen's Street and Conyers Road which bridged the railway cutting by the side of Dalton Street. (This whole area was demolished and rebuilt into the celebrated Tyneside housing landmark and Grade II listed building, the Byker Wall, designed by architect Ralph Erskine in the 1970s.) Joan became pregnant in the summer of 1888 and gave birth to a daughter they named Joan Lennie Nessworthy in February 1889. Sadly, the following month, Joan became ill with acute bronchitis. Her condition deteriorated over the course of ten days and she died on March 29th 1889. The baby girl was never well and she too died on August 22nd 1889.

Ambrose's widowerhood did not last long and he married again on February 28th 1890 at St Mary's Church, Heworth. Little is known of his bride, Virtuous Tombling. Their marriage certificate states that she was 28 years old and a spinster. Her place of residence at the time of the ceremony was given as Pelaw Main - an area of Gateshead on the south bank of the river which was the site of one of the many Tyne coal staithes.

Pelaw Main
Heworth Village

Virtuous' associations: (LEFT) The Staithes at Pelaw Main (19) and (RIGHT) St Mary's Church and Heworth village (20)


SS Tasso

SS Tasso Near Bergen (21)

Virtuous and Ambrose

Virtuous and Ambrose Nessworthy

The early months of 1891 saw him an able seaman on the SS Tasso. This 1467 ton steamship had been built by Earl's Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Hull and was launched in 1890. It had a crew of 41 under the mastership of Captain AH Pearson. It was the second vessel to bear the name. It joined the Wilson Line which ran a regular service between Hull and Scandinavia carrying passengers, mail and general cargo. Part of the Line's traffic included a near monopoly on the conveyance of migrants from Northern Europe to England. In the years between 1848 and 1914, 2.2 million migrants passed through the Port of Hull on their way to the United States, Canada, South Africa and Australia. (22)

It was probably this assignment which lead Ambrose and Virtuous to relocate to Kingston upon Hull. The census of 1891 found the pair in lodgings at the home of a beerseller named Charles (his surname is indecipherable on the form) at 71 Day Street. Virtuous gave her place of birth as Blakeney, Norfolk. Of particular interest is that their landlord's wife (70 year old Sarah) was born in Wiveton - a hamlet about a mile away from Blakeney. Looking back to the 1861 census for the area, an 8 month old granddaughter, Virtue, was living in the household of 61 year old William Tomlin and his wife Lucy also in Wiverton. He was a shoemaker.

Towards the end of the century, Ambrose moved to a house at 57 Pulman Road in the Anlaby district of the town. Their marriage remained childless for nine years. Then, in the spring of 1899, Virtuous gave birth to a daughter they named Lucy Ann. She was disabled from birth. Two more births followed: William Herbert in 1901 and Florence in 1902. In the latter half of the decade, Ambrose decided to move the family back to Tyneside. They set up home at 67 Frederick Street, South Shields. It was at this address that Ambrose became unwell with what proved to be his final illness.

The Broadgate Connection

Three institutions play a part in the conclusion of this saga. In South Shields the first Union Workhouse was opened in German Street (which became Ocean Road) in 1837. By 1878 this building had become too small and a new complex with facilities for 700 inmates was opened on the edge of Harton Moor. After 1930 it became known as the Harton Institution and later, with the onset of the National Health Service, South Shields General Hospital. In the early 1890s Sunderland County Borough drew up plans for its own asylum. The building was laid out over sloping lands adjacent to the village of Ryhope on the coast to the south midway between the town and Seaham. It opened in 1895. Initially known as Sunderland Borough Lunatic Asylum its name changed to Cherry Knowle Hospital in the 1940s. Broadgate Hospital (the East Riding Asylum) opened somewhat earlier than these two in 1871. It came as a replacement for the earlier North and East Ridings Pauper Lunatic Asylum which had been built at Clifton near York in response to the Lunatic Asylums Act 1842. Broadgate occupied a site near Walkington, a village just outside Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire. When it first opened it accommodated 280 patients which had risen in 1904 to 463.

Harton Workhouse
Harton Ward

The South Shields Union Workhouse LEFT: Exterior view, main entrance. RIGHT: Typical view of the male ward (24)

Picking up on his story again, RR appears to have remained in good health until the summer of 1909. Then, over a period of a few short weeks his attitude and demeanour changed and his memory began to fail. He was admitted to the Union Workhouse at Harton on August 9th 1909 under an order signed by John Lawson, a local Justice of the Peace. An initial assessment by Henry Barnes, the Imbecile Attendant, reported that RR 'laughs and talks to himself; wanders about at night disturbing others. His memory is bad and has no idea of dressing himself.' From there he was transferred to the Sunderland Lunatic Asylum.

His physical and mental condition deteriorated rapidly. On November 19th 1909 he was moved on to Broadgate Hospital becoming patient number 3205. The initial observations by Dr David Spence noted that RR did not seem to understand what was being said to him and that his answers were 'quite irrelevant. He says he is not married but has a wife living' (an ironic statement given the circumstances! - ED). He was described as a stout elderly man (5 feet 4½ tall, weighing 10 stone 5 pounds) with brown eyes, bad teeth and scant grey hair. His face was expressionless and his gait and speech were slow. He was easily confused and had difficulty expressing himself. A diagnosis of advanced senile dementia was made.

Broadgate ward block
Broadgate

Broadgate Asylum: (LEFT) The Main entrance (RIGHT) Ward block 5 with 'airing court'

The hospital had been built with 'airing courts', outside grassed and paved areas where patients could be exposed to fresh air and exercise. Around the time of his admission, the addition of verandahs to the ground floor wards (of which ward 5 was one) was being considered for the open air treatment of patients with tuberculosis. It was also thought that such similar treatment would be beneficial for 'acute cases of insanity taking place in asylums'. RR was placed on Ward 5. His condition, both physical and mental, remained feeble through the following month.

In late January 1910 he suffered two epileptic fits, for which he was treated with bromine (an agent used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a sedative and anticonvulsant). For a time he remained very restless and agitated. By late March he was bed ridden. His condition continued to deteriorate over the next couple of months and he finally died at 9:30am on the morning of August 7th 1910. The death certificate recorded the cause as cerebral softening. RR was buried in the graveyard in the grounds of the asylum.

Elizabeth Nessworthy continued to reside at 40 Wellington Street and outlived her husband by more than thirteen years. She became progressively infirm herself and finally died of cardiac failure and seniilty on January 6th 1924. Her daughter, Mary Ann Elliott recorded her death.

What happened to Susannah?

The key to Susannah's story into the twentieth century lies with their oldest daughter Mary. In the first few years after her marriage to Henry Wait, Mary had two sons: Henry (born 1891) and Luke Fidler (1895) who was named after his paternal grandmother. Towards the end of the decade Henry obtained a job as a labourer in Aberdeen. Mary followed him and their third son, Robert, was born at 56 Marischal Street in the town on April 5th 1900. The following year, while Henry remained in Scotland, Mary travelled south with her three sons and spent the spring at 1 Middle Street, Tynemouth. In the meantime, Henry had established a home in Frederick Street, Aberdeen into which the family were reunited. Robert was taken ill with pneumonia and died on August 1st 1902.

Towards the end of the decade, the family moved again to East North Street. Mary became pregnant during the autumn of 1908. Her son, William, was born on March 9th 1909. The child was never well and died three months later on June 17th. The diagnosis was given as 'marasmus' (an archaeic term for an unspecified wasting disease). Almost immediately, Mary was pregnant again. Another son, to which they again gave the name Robert, was born on April 20th 1910. This child too succumbed, this time to meningitis, on November 4th. There is some evidence that during these times Mary's mother, Susannah came to visit.

At the time of the census of 1911, Henry and Mary were living with their two surviving sons in a two room apartment of a tenement building at 14 East North Street. Henry's occupation is given as marine fireman on board a trawler. Susannah, now declared to be a widow, was to be found living at 30 Appleby Street, North Shields. She was working as a domestic servant with the household of George Hall Shield, the engineman of a tugboat and his wife Ethel. Ethel's brother was Joseph Nott who had married RR and Susannah's daughter Isabella.

Wait family

The Wait family about 1910
L to R: Henry (senior); Mary Nessworthy; Henry (junior); Susannah (seated): Front: Luke

Back in Scotland, Mary Wait gave birth to a daughter, Lydia Nelson, on August 17th 1912. On August 22nd 1913, they were able to celebrate the wedding of their son Henry to Ann Reid. Mary was already in the early stages of another pregnancy and the following year a further baby girl was born. Helen arrived on February 17th 1914 but died within two days of a brain haemorrhage. The family's next move was to 98 Park Street where they were joined by Susannah Nessworthy. She was now in her early seventies. Over the Christmas period of 1916 she developed bronchitis and pneumonia. Her condition deteriorated over a six week period and she died on February 15th 1917. Her death was recorded by Henry Wait, her grandson. She was wrongly credited as being the widow of James Nessworthy, a carpenter joiner.

Not long after her mother died, Mary began to feel unwell. Her condition ran a slow course and she was diagnosed as having cancer of the uterus. She died on April 30th 1919. Her husband, Henry, reported her death. As is the custom with death certificates issued in Scotland both her parents were acknowledged and their identities on this document are correct. Mother and daughter were interred in the same plot in the Trinity Cemetery, Aberdeen. The position is identified by a simple marker which reads 'Mother's Grave' placed at the side of the path. Henry Wait was to marry again in August 1920. His second wife was Jane Clark Jarwick. In one of those curious twists of genealogical coincidence, towards the end of his life he lived in Pittodrie Place, Aberdeen just a few doors away from an uncle of one of the authors of this article. (See "The long and winding road from Barton to Barton: Part 2. Brother Jack").

Trinity Cemetery
Grave marker

Trinity Cemetery, Aberdeen. Left: the site of Susannah and her daughter Mary's grave; Right: The grave marker

A Diagnosis Revealed

The onset of Ambrose Nessworthy's final illness appears to have been as sudden as that of his brother, RR, a year earlier. Medical records show that he had a history of symptoms for about one month. He was admitted to the South Shields Union Workhouse, Harton on April 25th 1910 from the house at 69 Frederick Street. The same Henry Barnes noted him to be troublesome and quarrelsome by day and noisy and restless, interferring with others at night. He was delusional 'eg he has a number of airships'. He was transferred to the Broadgate Asylum on May 10th under an order signed by Justice of the Peace, W. L. Robertson where he was allotted patient number 3318. The initial assessment repeated the above and added: 'He imagines he has untold wealth and that he is King of England. He is always trying to escape.'

Ambrose was described as a middle aged man, 5 feet 3 inches tall and weighing 9 stone 5 pounds. He had light brown eyes and was bald. His gait was unsteady amd his speech was somewhat slurred. His mental state was again described as delusional and euphoric. A diagnosis of early GPI (general paralysis of the insane) was made and he was prescribed Sulphonal, a commonly used hypnotic and tranquiliser of the period.

In early June his delusions became physical in nature. He took himself to bed after a fight with another patient claiming that his leg was broken but 'was able to run about on impulse moving him to do so'. He was transferred to Ward 5. He remained under observation there for the next two and a half years, his condition varying but slowly declining. He finally died on the ward on March 1st 1915.

Death comes to us all at the end

It is not clear why RR and Ambrose were both transferred from the care of institutions in their neighbourhood to the Broadgate Asylum which is 120 miles distant. Nor was it the family's final link with the institution. Research has shown, in fact, that between November 1909 and November 1912, 27 patients were transferred from South Shields to Broadgate.

That Ambrose suffered from syphilis is beyond doubt. General Paraylsis of the Insane was a term used for the later stages of the disease which affected the brain and led inexorably to the mental institution. It is the diagnosis applied to Ambrose at Broadgate even though his medical records do include the phrase 'Genito-urinary system: no evidence of syphilis'. The tragedy of his first marriage is explained by this condition. Although there is no confirmation that his wife, Joan, died of other than a chest infection soon after childbirth, their daughter Joan Lennie Nessworthy had the recognisable stigmata of constitutional or congenital syphilis when she died aged six months. Ambrose's second marriage is also highly suggestive. Virtuous appears to have been childless for nearly nine years. Then in 1899, a daughter, Lucy, was born who, by family accounts, was disabled and spent years in care.

By the census of 1911, Virtuous Nessworthy had moved to a house at 85 Byethorne Street, South Shields and listed her three children as living with her. In late December 1916, Virtuous was admitted to the Infirmary at South Shields Union Workhouse, Harton. After a short illness she died on January 8th 1917. The cause of death was registered as syphilis and septicaemia. She was buried at Harton Cemetery four days later. With both parents now dead, Lucy was taken into care. Although the actual date this occurred is not certain, she was admitted to the same institution as her mother. She was transferred from the mental wards at Harton to Broadgate Asylum on November 4th 1923 only to be transferred back to Harton on February 27th 1931. She finally died there on December 25th 1936. The entry recorded in the institution's Death Book shows that her body was transferred to Durham College of Medicine. This may have been carried out under the terms of the Anatomy Act 1832, which was not repealed until a new act was introduced in 1984 (23). She was laid to rest in St Andrews and Jesmond Cemetery, Newcastle upon Tyne on December 23rd 1937.

Ambrose and Virtuous' other two children were unaffected. Herbert emigrated to Australia in the 1920s. There is nothing in the records to suggest that RR suffered from any of the effects of syphilis, although the course of his decline has many parallels with that of his brother. It is to be noted that the condition in all its forms should be considered endemic in Victorian and Edwardian Britain. It was an occupational hazzard amongst the Armed Forces and mariners alike. It is estimated that at least ten percent of the population were affected although many would never know it. It is therefore a shadow which lurks in the depths of many family trees.

Further Reading

South Shields Hodgson
Norfolk Broads
Broadgate Hospital
The Pox

The book covers

As well as the articles and source material indicated in the reference list below, we recommend the following books for background reading.

1. "The Borough of South Shields: From the earliest period to the close of the nineteenth century" George B Hodgson. Andrew Reid & Company Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. 1903. This volume, which runs to over 500 pages and includes many illustrations and plates, is an exhaustive history of the area from pre Roman times. Its various sections deal with such subjects as the relationship with Newcastle upon Tyne, the history and influence of the Church, and the area's industrial, commercial and social development. Text is available for perusal at: eBook and Texts, American Libraries , Internet Archive
2. "Handbook to The Rivers & Broads of Norfolk & Suffolk": G Christopher Davies. Jarrold and Sons; London and Norwich. 1891. This volume was produced as a handbook to aid the tourist, angler and artist to explore and appreciate the countryside and waterways of these two East Anglian counties. The narrative takes the form of a cruise along the Broads. Elements of Yarmouth appear in Chapter III. This book is available to access in digital form at: eBook and Texts, California Digital Libraries , Internet Archive
3. "Across the Westwood: The Life and Times of Broadgate Hospital, Beverley": Compiled and Edited by Robert Curry. Clifford Ward & Co (Bridlington) Ltd, East Yorkshire. 1991. Four past members of the staff gathered together a wealth of information, files, memories, anecdotes and photographs in order to prepare a volume which 'portrays the essential spirit of the Hospital and its people'. The volume retells its early history, the changes in attitudes and treatment of mental illness across two centuries, the coming of the National Health Service and the Hospital's final demise in 1990. The authors have succeeded in producing a fitting memorial to an institution.
4. "The Pox: The Life and Near Death of a very social disease": Kevin Brown, Sutton Publishing Ltd, Stroud Gloucestershire (2006): ISBN: 0-7509-4041-7. In this volume Kevin Brown has compiled an account of the history, the variety of symptoms, the challenges of diagnosis and treatment and the changing social and economical attitudes to one of the most fascinating, terrifying and misunderstood diseases to have inflicted mankind. As indicated elsewhere (24), "10% [of researchers] have a sporting chance of finding syphilis in their family tree" making this book an essential read for the family historian.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their thanks for the help, comments and suggestions from the following in the construction of this article: the archivists and staff of County Hall, East Riding of Yorkshire and of Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums at the Discovery Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne.

References

1. 'Honest Polygamists' in Bigamy Christian Polygamy INFO
2. Elizabethe Nessworthy Census of England and Wales 1911 South Shields RG14PN30262 RG78PN1745A RD556 SD1 ED3 SN108
3. Family tree graphic: Freeware Graphics: Vintage Kin Design Studio Australia. Reproduced with permission
4. Robert Nesworthy and Elizabeth Young, marriage notice: Newcastle Guardian and Tyne Mercury. May 24th 1862. British Library Newspaper Archive
5. St Hilda's Church, South Shields 1901: Old postcards and photographs of South Shields South Shields Sanddancers
6. The Church of St Stephen, Mile End Road, South Shields South Shields Sanddancers Forum
7. Teething Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia
8. TD Marshall in Tyne Tug Builders A history of tugs on the RFiver Tyne
9. The Rows Greater Yarmouth Official Tourist Site
10. "St Nicholas Church, Great Yarmouth" and "A Row, Great Yarmouth" Text available at 'The Handbook to the Rivers and Broads of Norfolk & Suffolk' 18th edition. by G Christopher Davies. Originally published Jarrold and Sons, London and Norwich California Digital Library. The Internet Archive
11. 'Shadwell Street (Foot of Long Bank)', 'Shadwell Street': Historic images of South Tyneside Southtynesideimages
12. Gorton D.A. and Newburgh N.Y. 'Tabes mesenterica' The American Homoeopathic Review Vol. 06 No. 08, 1866 in Legatum Homeopathicum
13. Fawcus Buildings: Old photograph about 1930: The Archive Photographs Series. Compiled by Eric Hollerton. The Chalford Publishing Company, Stround, Gloucestershire. 1997
14. 'The Juvenile Thief' Shields Daily Gazette June 26th and June 28th 1873. British Library Newspaper Archive
15. The Training Ship Wellesley at North Shields 1868-1914 Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums Blog
16. Wellesley in Training Ships The Workhouse by Peter Higginbotham
17. 'River Scene' Watercolour by B B Hemy. Shows the second vessel Wellesley moored off Coble Dene, North Shields in The Training Ship Wellesley Painting reference G7299 South Shields Museum
18. 'Low Street from the High Light October 2nd 1907' Old photograph featuring the TSI Wellesley North Shields: The Archive Photographs Series. Compiled by Eric Hollerton. The Chalford Publishing Company, Stround, Gloucestershire. 1997
19. The Staithes - an old postcard Pelaw Main Dave Webster, Flickr
20. St Mary's Church and Heworth Village 1894. - an old postcard Page 2 East Gateshead Photo Website
21. SS Tasso (2) Near Bergen - old postcard Steamship Companies Wilson Line Norway-Heritage Hands Across The Sea. Image usage as defined on the web page.
22. The Voyage by Nicholas J Evans Migration from Northern Europe to America via the Port of Hull, 1848 - 1914 Norway-Heritage Hands Across The Sea
23. The Anatomy Act of 1832 M-Gillies, mysendoff.com
24. Genealogy: Does Syphilis Play A Part in Your Family Tree? Joanna Cake: Ezine@articles. January 23rd 2010


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